Polish-Hungarian Association

"Wegry i Polska to dwa wiekuiste deby, kazdy z nich wystrzelil pniem osobnim i odrebnym, ale ich korzenie, szeroko rozlozone pod powierzchnia ziemi, i splataly zie, i zlastaly niewidocznie. Stad byr i czerstwosc jednego jest drugiemu warunkiem zycia i zdrowia."

Stanislaw Worcell(1849)

"Magyarország és Lengyelország két örökéletű tölgy, melyek külön törzset növesztettek, de gyökereik a föld alatt messze futnak, összekapcsolódtak és láthatatlanul egybefonódtak. Ezért egyiknek léte és erőteljessége a másik életének és egészségének feltétele."

Two citations, written in Polish and Hungarian showing strong association between Poland and Hungary. What are the racines of this association and why this association is so strong?History of both of the two countries. Modern Poland and Hungary. THis chapter details these topics.

Approximately the polish population of Hungarian Republic is 10-12 thousand. So the number of polish minorities in Hungary is not two extensive but their influence and the influence of Poland in Hungary is main. Proof is the visit and speech of Polish Prime Minister, Mattheus Morawieczki in Budapest on March 15 2019 in Budapest. Hungarian Prime Minister Orbán Viktor invited Mr. Morawieczki officially to Hungarian National Feast. 

Topics 

I. History of Polish-Hungarian Association

Middle Ages  

I.1.Árpád Era 

I.1.1.Stanislaw Worcell 

HIs life 

WOrcell and Hungary

Rememberance of Stanislaw Worcell 

Translation 

Resources 

I.2.Anjou Era 

I.3.Era of Zsigmond and Hunyadi 

I.4.Era of Jagello

I.5.Early Modern Age

Post Mohács Era 

Era of Bathory István and Rákoczi

From chasing out of Ottomans until Enlightement 

19th century 

Polish friendship of Hungarian reformists

Polish heroes of 1848-1849

Polish workers in Hungary

20th century 

First part of the century 

Hosting of Polish refugees during the Second World War

Holocaust in Poland and Hungary   

From 1945 until democratisation 

From 1989 until unified European Union Membership

21st century 

Years 2000

Years 2010 until 2020


Middle-Ages 

Árpád Era 

Polish and Hungarian relationships have been influenced by facts of dynasties in the Era of Árpád and Piasts.Two dynasties have had been related by familial contacts. They found refuge at each others or asked help from each others. THese facts influenced historical background and relationships of both Polish and Hungarian Nation. 

Second wife Adelajda of Prince Géza.Adelajda is the daughter of Prince Semomysi. First wife of Valliant Boleslav was the daughter of Prince Géza. Her name was Judit. She was the daughter of István The Saint The First.Fruit of this marriage was Bezprym(968-1032) who exiled to Hungary. In Hungary King István The First his uncle has given him land at Balaton-Highland. According to a legend Veszprém brings his name. 

In the Era following the death  of István The Saint, Princes of Árpád Dynasty, András(Andrew), Béla and Levente exiled to Poland. THey have seeking refuge against Peter. Andrew The First(I.András) has dethroned Peter taking help from Poland. Andrew has been followed on the throne by his younger brother Béla THe First wife's daughter Rycheza, daughter of Mieszko THe Second. Bla fighted in Polish Army against staff of Pomerans of Baltic Region. That is the reason why he could marry Richeza, Mieszko's daughter. In this marriage were born three sons. Later on two of them  Géza The First and László THe First have had become Kings of Hungary. Ladislaus THe Saint(Szent László) has won over the Hungarian and German  Army of King Salomon with the help of Boleslav The Second(Audacious) KIng of Poland.

Ladislaus THe Saint was born in Poland.  According to some sources his mother tongue was polish also. As consequence he became Patron Saint of Hungarian minorities in Poland. Boleslav THe Second(1058-1080), has had been excommunicated by Pope Gregory The Sixth. Boleslav The Second was brother-in-law of Béla The First After that event Boleslav The Second, accompanied by his son, have seeking exile in Hungary. They have been bravely welcomed by Ladislaus THe Saint. 

Let us evoque the marriage of Boleslav The Fifth and Kinga. It has happened in the Year of 1239. Boleslav was thirteen years old. Kinga was Hungarian Princess. Princess Kinga was two years older than Boleslav, fifteen years old. Year 1241 was also the Year of devastation of Poland. COuple of Princes, Kinga and Boleslav escaped to Podolin first. From Podolin they exiled to the Castle of Csorsztin at the left side of Dunajec. Prince Boleslav THe Pious of Kujavia married Happy Jolan older sister of Kinga. Both of two marriages influenced Polish-Hungarian relations positively. Both of Polish Princes helped their father-in-law Béla THe Fourth against Ottokár THe Second King of Tchequie in the war. 

István The Fifth has visited personally Boleslav in Krakowia and allied with him in obstinacy and protection. Károly Róbert(Charles Robert) King of Hungary and Ulászló King of Poland allied. Charles Robert King of Hungary helped Ulászló against Order of Knighthood of Germany. The Year is 1220 when Károly Róbert married Lokietek Erzsébet.(Elizabeth Lokietek). Elizabeth Lokietek was Ulászló's daughter. 

1335 is the Year when negotiations of Hungary between János(John) King of Tchequie and Kázmár The Third King of Poland  have succeeded. The result of these negotiations have had been strenghtened in November at King Meeting in Visegrád. 

János renounced from the Kingdom of Poland. King of Hungary and King of Poland as judges have had judged that Kujavia and other territories belong to Poland. As judgement of both Kings Pomeran Territories have belonged to Germany. Exactly Territories of Pomerania have belonged to German Knights. Tchequie and Poland could not agree concerning their debates on Silezia. 

Before that political event an economic agreement was signed between Tchequie and Hungary in Trencsén. Aim of this agreement was to stop the right of Vienna of stopping commercial goods. Commercial route of Hungary and Germany must have had gone through Tcheque Territory. THat was the Year of 1339 when Kázmér pointed one of the sons of Károly(Charles) as hereditaire of THrone of Poland. In case if he would die without male hereditaire. 

In the Era of Anjou Kings-Years of Polish-Hungarian Personal Union-cultural agreements between the two countries have had developed and flourished notably. 

Goldsmith's craft flourished in both of countries. Bases of flourishing craft art was that Masters have had arrived from Italy to the Royal Court of Károly Róbert.These Masters of craft art worked for the Royal Court of Krakowia also. THey teached new and unknown techniques in Royal Courts to local craftsmen. As consequence local craftsmen opened their workshops.As economical flourishing, at that Era, Hungarian Kingdom have been the richest Kingdom of gold and silver mine treasures.  

Nagy Kázmér(Kázmér The Great) founded Krakow University. Consequently Hungarian students completed their studies in Krakowia.  Monastery of Jasna Góra was founded by Hungarian Monks of Order Pálos in 1380.At that occasion sixteen Monks of Order Pálos travelled from BUda to Czestohowá. During centuries Order of Pálos perished. Consequently in 1934 from Czestohowá to Hungary 16 Monks have travelled to reinforce Order of Pálos. 

There is a legend of three oceans in Hungarian Empire. THis legend comes from Era of Nagy Lajos(Louis The Great) and from Era of Personal Union(1379-1384). This legend is always a legend without any historical background. Hungarian Kingdom has had a gate to Adriatic Ocean. Moldavian Principality bordered Black-Sea. Moldavian Principality has had not been part of Hungarian Empire. After retiring of Golden Horde weakened  to the Territories of Moldavia, Louis The First established feoffee with Roumanian Kenézség. 

Frontieers of Poland did not reach Baltic-Sea in Years of Personal Union. 

Due to fact that Louis THe Great(Nagy Lajos) have had not given sons hereditaires to the world he disposed to throne his oldest daughter Mária after his father death. Heredity have been forced by King and accepted by German Emperor, by Polish Emperors and Anjous. Mária was crowned by Hungarians at Székesfehérvár in 1382 death of Louis THe Great. Mária Governing Era were years of disturbation. She was 12 years old when crowned. She was the first woman to be crowned. 

As Polish Powers did not accept Mária on the Throne, they crowned Hedvig the younger daughter of Louis The Great. Queen name of Hedvig was Jadviga during her kingdom from 1384 until 1399. Due to Jadviga young age(10-12 years old) Polish lords obliged Jadviga to marry Jagello   Ulászló  Prince of Lithuania. Marriage happened in 1386. As an antecedant Prince Jagello has had christianized. At time of marriage he was  crowned and became King of Poland, Jagello Ulászló THe Second. So the Personal Union between Poland and Lithuania composed. As a matter of fact Kingdom of Poland has had become the biggest and powerful State of the region at that Era. When he began his Reign Ulászló The Second was thirty-five years old. He reigned until 1434.

Anjou Hedvig, Jadviga, who reigned as Queen of Poland with his husband until her death. Her great merit was to help Lithuans christianization.SHe contributed to the developement of University of Krakowia also. In Polish mind she lives as a Sacred Personnality. SHe was the Protector Saint of Biecz Early Polsih-Hungarian King City. Biecz played main role in progress of Polish-Hungarian Economic  Relationships. 

I.1.1. Stanislaw Worcell 

Let us mention Stanislaw Worcell also from who the above citation comes. 

His entire name was Stanislaw Gabriel Worcell. His birth place was Stepan THe Region Wolyn. He was born in 26 of March 1799. He died in London at the 3rd of February 1857.Stanislaw Worcell became known as politican, political thinker and public writer, publicist. For Hungary he is important because of that fact of beeing KOssuth Lajos friend and compagne in his London emigration period. 

Life of Stanislaw Worcell 

Birth place can be found in the present region of Ukraine. He was born after the three distribution of Poland. He originated from Count Family.   He studied at Lycee of Kremenyec. Kremenyec School has been founded by Tadeusz Czaczki and Hugo Kollataj. Before the Era of Big Szejm this school was the center hereditaire of civil teaching reforms.  

Stanislaw Wrocell took interest to contemporary ideas of Europe already in his early years. Main interest was utopistic socialism. He was freemason also. He was member of a masonic lodge.  During revolts against Russia in November he fighted in Wolyn in 1830. For his military activity he was rewarded getting the Highest Polish Military Reward, Order Wojenny Virtuti Military. Order Wojenny Virtuti Military was founded by Szaniszló Ágost The Second in 1792 for those soldiers who participated in fights against Russians and Revolt of Targowice to protect THe State of 3rd of May.  Stanislaw Worcell got the reward in 11th of August 1831. Stanislaw Worcell was elected to Sejm founded after the revolts. 

After failure of Revolt of November like members of Great Emigration(Wielka Emigracja) he exiled to France. From France he travelled and stayed in England.He participated in the work of Polish Immigrant Organizations. In the beginning of his emigration he have had influence and membership in the left wing Society of Poland Democratic(Towarzystwo Demokratyczne Polskie) founded on 17th of March 1832.  He left this Society in 1835 and he became one of the founders of Lud Polski, Gromady LUdu Polskiego, organization of left wing side, radical. LUd Polski was composed mainly of soldiers. After he was founder of Union Emigrant(Zjednoczenia Emigracji) and finally he returned to Polish Democratic Union. 

One of his friends was in London Giuseppe Mazzini politican Italian. Another frined was Kossuth Lajos with whom they influenced each other. 

Under pseudoname Gryzomir Tukan he was also member of a freemason association.(Towarzystwo SZúbrawców). Towarzystwo Szúbrawcow critised backwardness,contact between nobles and peasants, drunkeness, gambling and antinationalism. He accused nobles of Poland because of problems of Poland. Aims of this Organization were liberation of villeins and reforming lands. Anyway because of too left-wing oriented, members have opposed to members of mainly nobles and isolated themselves.

Stanislaw brother was Mikolaj Worcell deported to Caucase in 1827. He has been liberated in 1848 and returned to Poland.

Worcell and Hungary 

Worcell was also political thinker. Main idea of his career has been independence of Poland ahd Hungary.  Based on his political thoughts, after disorganization of States three political systems will found. THis political region should include France of Western-South Pole, Spain and Italy. Central Region should include Germany and occasionally the Region of Scandinavia. Eastern Region should include Poland, Slavs, Hungary and Roumanians. He visioned a Central and Common State of East to counterbalance strong power of Germany and Russia. 

He disagreed with the fact that that Slav Populations fightod against Hungary during the Revolution of 1848-49. THus they weekened the possibility of an alliance.He considered that both the Federal and Central State can unify populations and living together. Main thing is respect of each other and recognition, liberty.  

In the beginning of years 1850 Kossuth and Worcell thought that Revolution is not yet lost.Eastern -Europe must be upraise.d  Worcell became supporter of socaialist revolution. KOssuth recognition gone until recognizing and remedy social problems.Worcell and Kossuth, like Mazzini, wanted to upraise the fire of revolution organizing local conspirations and revolts. During the War of Krím between 1853-1856 they opposed to each other.

Kossuth proposed the organisation of Regions of Hungary and Poland. He proposed also to ally with Turkey, France, England and Piemont.

Worcell and Polish people mistrusted Napoleon THe Third and English Prime Minister Palmerston. After fighting down Russia, they did not give help to Poland.  Austria allied also to them. Although political debate, Kossuth Lajos stayed friend of Worcell but turned to Ludwik Mieroslawski. 

Rememberance of Stanislaw Worcell

Rememberance of Stanislaw Worcell can be emphasized in his citation above which begins the topic about him.   His idea is often recitated in Polish-Hungarian relations. 

The statute remembering to Stanislaw Worcell was initiated in 2006.  THe statute was initiated in Győr and the form is two oaks grown together. 

As a gift from the 25 years old Polish Institute in BUdapest in 2014 a wallpainting was created on the wall of a building in Klauzál street in 7th district of the Capital. Form of painting are the two oaks and Worcell citation.

source:stanislaw worcell-wikipedia text

Era of Zsigmond and Hunyadi 

Era of Jagello 

Jagello Dynasty has been Dynasty of Lithuania. Jagello Dynasty was also a Polish-Lithuanian Dynasty. THis Dynasty played an important role in European and Hungarian history. Beginning of Jagello Era in history can be counted when Jagello Ulászló(Wladyslaw)   Prince of Lithuania married Hedvig Queen of Poland. Hedvig was the smaller daughter of King Louis The Great.(Nagy Lajos király). Great merit of Jagello THe First was the victory over the Army of German Knights. For this victory he unified military corps of Poland, Lithuania, Tchequie, Russia, Rutenia, Havasalföld in July of 1410. Victory happened at Grünwald.THis military lost ruined Feodal State.  

TIme passing  Jagello Dynasty and Hungary were in close relationship. Ulászló THe Second, son of Jagello Ulászló The Second and Anjou Hedvig was crowned by Hungarian Realms in 1440.(Ulászló THe First). He found death in the fights of Várna against Ottomans in 1444. His follower on throne was his younger brother Prince of Lithuania Kázmér The Fourth(Casimir THe Fourth).Casimir THe Fourth reigned from 1444 until 1492.His wife was Elisabeth, daughter of Habsburg Albert King of Hungary.  The  oldest son of Elisabeth and Casimir has been elected king by Tcheques in 1471. He was elected by HUngarians in 1490. THis king's name was Ulászló THe Second reigning from 1490 until 1516. His first wife was the widow of Hunyadi Mátyás THe First ,the well known King Matthias, Mátyás Király, Beatrix, Princess of Naples. He was followed on throne by  the son from second wife,princess of France, Louis The Second(1516-1526). This King died in Fight of Mohács. Death of Louis THe Second Jagellos of Hungary died out. Before diing out the last Jagello was on the Polish Throne KIng Zsigmond The First(1507-1548). His daughter Izabella(Isabelle)  has been married by Szapolyai János King of Hungary. Anna another daughter of Zsigmond was married by Báthory István Prince of Erdély.  

Next Era to analyze is THe Early Modern Age. 

Post Mohács Era 

Szapolyai János seeked refuge at Polish Dynasty. Sultan of Ottoman Empire supported him. Main reason of asile seeking of Szapolyai János  can be explained of Zsigmond residence in BUda as Prince. During that residence wife, Jagelló Izabella with child János Zsigmond reigned in Transsylvania.(Erdély). In the Era of Reformation Transsylvania(Erdély) became the complex Region of Polish-Hungarian intellectual association. Erdély was the territory of asilum of people who denied THe Holy Trinity. THeir Hungarian name is Unitárius. Strenghtening of Erdély have had been the aim of Zsigmond Ágost King of Poland who reigned from 1548 until 1572. Earlier contacts have been relied on association between Kings of Poland and Princes of Erdély.(Transsylvania). 

Era of Báthory István and Rákóczi Dynasty 

Year of Reunion of King Election in Warsaw was 1573. THere were four candidates for the Throne of Poland. Báthory István has had no chance. French Henry Valois was elected but he escaped. Reason of his escape  was the death of his brother. 

In the newer reunion of election Báthory István got only one vote. Negotiations have began and Báthory promised to marry  Jagelló Anna. So in 1576 he was crowned King.He negotiated between Polish groups  of nobles. He could reconcile them.He continuosly mentioned the example of broken Hungary into three part. He solidified Republic of Nobles of Poland and inner equilibre worked. His efforts to strenghten power of Kingdom  succeded also. All these efforts resulted victorious military expeditions and wealthy economy.He planned to establish an Association of Central-Europe against Ottoman Empire. THis Association would have been the pillar of these wars against Ottomans. After his death this  central power destroyed.  Final result was the falling apart of Poland.

Princes of Erdély organized Hungary liberation under Ottoman power asking help from Poland. They saw the example of Báthory István. THese plans aimed their realisations against Habsburgs THe Austrian Empire. THe misadventure of Rákoóczi György THe Second in 1657 shows these facts.

THököly Imre was helped by a Polish Second Army payed and recruited on French money. THis army counted 2-4000 soldiers. THis army was recruited in 1677 relied on Warsaw Pact. 

From chasing out of Ottomans until Enlightement 

Ottoman Empire weakened at the end of 17th century. Breaking down of Ottoman Empire became reality.THis fact was real although Ottomans sieged Vienna in the Year of 1683. Sobieski János THe Third(John Sobieski)(1674-1696)  allied with Austrian Empire, so THe Ligue Saint was formed. (Szent Liga) 

Armies and corps of SZent Liga chased out Ottomans from Hungary. These fights have been bloody and long fights.Polish Armies played an important role in 1683. THey liberated Párkány and sieged and occupied Castle of Esztergom. 

After chasing out Ottomans Hungary suffered Habsburg reign.Hungarian insurrectionists called Kuruc in Hungarian found refuge in Poland.Polish land was a reliable shelter for these Kuruc soldiers thanks to contacts between Sobieski and Thököly Imre. 

Rákóczi Ferenc THe Second escaped from the Prison of Bécsújhely in November  of 1701. He refuged  to Poland. THere he lived in Warsaw and Krakow. He exiled.His compagne was  Bercsényi Miklós.

When he returned back to his home country, Polish help came to him. In 1703 he got help from Prince Stanislaw Leszniczki.  Prince Stanislaw Leszniczki was the opponent of Rákóczi for the Throne of Poland. Peter THe First Czar of Russia supported Rákóczi. 

Epidemie of bubonic plague made Village Derenk  extincted in 1711. Counts Eszterházy the possessors of this village settled Polish villains coming from the Region of SZepesség Gorál into Derenk.

Dynastic relations disappeared in 18th century.  Decrease and the  Three Division proceeded.  Enlightment and French Revolution and their theses spreaded in both  Poland and Hungary. At Eperjes was formed th First Freemacon Lodge.  This Lodge was formed by Polish influence . Hungarian Jacobin intellectuals supported reforms of Great Sejm  and Kosciusko and mourned lost of Battle of Marcijowice(1794).

19th century

Lost of Polish Independence gave new perspectives to Hungarian-Polish relationships. At the begininning of 19th century Poland participated  in Napoleon War because Polish people  believed the return of the unity of Polish State  from Napoleon. Hungarians fighted against Napoleon in Habsburg alliance. Hungarian desire was the "rainy, silencious springtime and long war". The Saint Alliance divided Poland at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Western Parts of Poland having high-economy were annexed to Kingdom of  Prussia  under the name of  Poznan Grand Duchy. Central and Eastern Regions were annexed  to Russia under the name of Kingdom of Poland. Gallic Region was annexed to Austria. Ancient Polish Statement was represented by Republic of Krakowia.

Polish  people wanted to restore divided Polish State unity. Yeaar of revolt was 1830. At that occasion Counties of Hungary organized bals and donations to help Poland. General Assembly of  County  Bars asked King of Hungary Ferenc to support Poland in a written request.  Young people wore Polish dresses. Lot of people escaped at the frontieer t o fight  side by side with Polish revoltants. Opposition leaders Deák Ferenc, Kossuth Lajos, Kölcsey Frenec, Vörösmarty Mihály  and Bajza József have taken solidarity with Polish people. Polish revoltants were defeated at Ostrojeka in 1831 by Russian corps. Russian corps occupied Warsowia and bloody repression followed. Polish historical writing science notes political refugees of that revolte as Great Emigration. Revoltants were mainly nobles and soldiers. Less were the intellectuals. Polish refugees got help everywhere. Police of Vienna investigated against subversives.House searches proceeded in lot of places. Later on these investigations stopped because of protests of counties. Consequence was  liberty of subersives not arrested by police of Vienna.Such a few stayed in Hungary. THese few stayed mainly at Pest, Bratislava, and in main cities in Highland. Notable Highland city is Bártfa where a subversive niche formed.

Polish Heroes of 1848-49

Both of Polish and Hungarian Nations  brightest historical chapter is the Revolution of 1848-49. In this Revolution fighted Generals Bem József and  Henryk Dembinski. Anyway thousands of Polish soldiers and officers partiipated in this Revolution.

Polish populations of Hungary supported also Revolution of 1848-49 in March of 1848. Polish people of Pest organized torchlight procession welcoming  representants of Polish Gals coming to Pest and searching relations with actual Governement of Hungary. Leaders of Revolt of Vienna and Poznan exiled to Hungary. Kossuth welcomed Polish soldiers in Hungarian Army. Bem, Dembinsky, Wysocki, BUlharin who amongst others fled to Hungary were well trained soldiers.From Emperor side there were also masses of soldiers fugiitives in Hungary. Such an exemple was Miecyslaw Woroniecki, Prince, who joined with his soldiers the wars of South-Region in Autumn of 1848.. Aim of Polish soldiers was the organization of a legion.  General Bem thought Polish military participation within the army.

Military corps of BUlharin and Woroniecki fighted in the Army of Damjanich and Görgei. Bem directed Amries of Transsylvania. In springtime of 1849 Kossuth Lajos delegated Dembinski for Commander-in-Chief post. Dembinsiki was fired from this post because of defeat at Chapelle.ALthough Polish armies fighted in important wars.

at Szolnok in 5th March 1849 Ulans of Wadyslaw Poninski

Horse riders of Jagmin of Hatvannai József

Ulans at Tápióbicske

Kossuth saluted Ulans taking off his hat at Gödöllő. Legion of Poland was founded at 6th of May 1849. Occupation and taking Buda back can be called the baptism of fire.Taking back of BUda was planned to four mililtary corps of Ulans, three walker bataillons,and six artillery battery. In the Army of Bem József in Transsylvania . another Legion has  been also organized.  It was main in arrest of Russian attack of 1849.Last bataillon of Revolution The Battaillon of Temesvár was lead by Dembinski first. After his blessing Bem took leadershiip.Reprimation of Revolution, Polish populations emigrated.  

Polish Martyrs of Hungarian Revolution: Myecislaw Woroniecki, Karol d'Abancourt de Pranqueville, Konrad Kazimiers Rulikowski.

In the soldiers Army  servekd three military judges  of Polish origin. THey were Nizsalovszky Andor, Antal and András.

Polsih workers in Hungary

In Polish of Congress  Revolt of January started in 1865. Hundreds of Hungarianas fighted here side by side with Pokish. Eg:Eszterházy Ottó colonel of horse armies,  Major Nyáry Ferenc. Although we can cite Lieutenant Wallis Béla or common soldier Hermann Ottó.  

After the failure of Revolution circa four thousand refugees came in Hungary. Nearly all settlements in Hungary have had a Polish citizen.Millions of Polish people fled mainly Gallic Region.  THey travelled mainly to Europe and United States searching work and better life.

First waves  of Polish immigrants searching work in Hungary reached Hungary in years of 1880. THese Polish found work in industry and construction areas. Polish communities, colonies formed in Budapest, Kassa, Miskolc, Pozsony. In summertimes circa 8-10.000 temporary workers came in.

Polish Cultural Associations formed fast.  Polish Associiation of Polish of BUdapest was formed in 1883. SYLA THe Association of Teaching of WOrkers fomred in 1895. Let us cite the Polish clubs and restaurants of that Era.

20th century

Era of Dualism until 1914

Monarchy of Austria-Hungary founded in 1867 has been Bipolar  State. Military affairs, foreign affairs, and financial affairs, financing them relied Hungary and Austria. All these departments were directed by delegations of 60-60 individuals. Except this official affairs Hungary owned independence.

Form of State of Hungary has been established. It was Constitutional Monarchy. Emperor  Frerenc József (Francois Joseph ) kept hsi  powitions. He directed the Army of Monarchy. Settlement between the two counturies did not make the independence certain but gave compromise.

Census of 1900 recensed 50.182 Polish citizens in Hungary. During the First World War in 1916 their nuber was 36 524. Compared to other nationalities and population  their number was very small. Real Plish village colony formed in Kőbánya. Polish workers of Kőbánya worked in factories, porcelaain  manufactory, stone-mines, beer  factory. In Kőbánya for Polish colonies Polish  CHurch  has been built.

Miklós Ferndinánd Leó(1889-1968) founded Hungarian-Polish Association.First President of this Association was Baron Nyáry Albert(1871-1933) artist painter and historian.  Hungarian-Plish Association founded in the beginning of First World War the Polish Military Comittee. Polish Military Comittee recruited circa thousnand of voluntary soldiers for Polish Legion. VOluntaires fighted side by side with Joseph Pilsudski for Idepenedence of Poland. They stayed in touch with Polish  Legions and in 1939 they participated in Second World War also.

During Monarchy exigences of Hungarian political leaders concerining territorial unity, Hungarian governing within Hungary, protection  against Rusiian and German exigences, could not be supported giving some victims.

Economic Settlement realised also. Organization of common affairs happened by shares re-negotiated every 10 years. Based on shares of 1867 Hungary contributed to common affairs giving 30 percent of charges. Austria contributed giving 70 percent of charges. Common market of Empire formed, common currency has been introduced. Capital and work force flow was free within the Empire .Tax, Mesure, Mass-Media  have been cooriddinatied.

All these dispositions secured the rapid economic developement of Hungary.  THis developement favorised the agriculture, showing fundamentals of the country.

Date of Settlement with Croatia is 1868. According  to this Agreement Croatia owned autonomay of interior affairs and territorial affairs. Nation of Croatia was recognized as a Political Nation. Croat language became official language,szábor worked, Parliament of Crioatia delegated 42 representants to Hungarian Parliament.  Autonomy of Croatia  is an exemple of how to manage optimally and positivly European affairs  of Nations. and Nationalities. Anyway Croates started to think or deal about  trialism which  means three poles of Empire. THese  three poles would have been Vienna- BUdapest-Zagreb. Emperor rejected this political ambition like Tcheque ones. Croates rejected the fact that Fiume stayed Hungarian Territory.

Politics of Nationalities and Minorities in the Era of Dualism

Content

Hungarian Politics of Nationalities  

Hungarians and Nationalities  

Ethnical minorities -jews and gypsies

Soruces

Life and work of Eötvös József (law of mother tongue for minoriities)

Hungarian Politics of Nationalities

The date is 1868 when Law of using mother tongues  for minorities was creatied. THe Law of mother language using for minorities came from Eötvös József. Later on Hungarian govermenemnts deviated from that  Law and forced Magyarisation.  Main politican forcing Magyarisation was Bánffy Dezső who forcend the name changing of local names.He forced family names changing also.  Concerning names  of places, later on using Magyaarised names was obligatory and became official. Education was also forced, Hungarian language and  Hungairan point of view in history teaching dominated.

According to Lex Apponyi of 1907 this Law declared that teaching Hungarian language was obligatory at schools public or private. ones.

Hungarians and nationalities

In the Era of Dualism economic progress  raised national ego of Hungarians.At that Era because of immigration of national entities and assimilation of these entities  mainly to BUdapest the number of  Hungarian population has grown.  THis grwoth was without Croatia from 41.5% to 54.5% from 1850 to 1910.

Aside Hungarians Croatia has been recognized as a Soveregn Political Nation. THat is why  tHe Settlement happened between Hungary and Croatia in 1868.Croatia has had own parliament, could delegate own representants,and became richer with Regions of Frontieer and Slavonia.Germans mostly recognized ans sympathised with Hungarians.  Saxons of Transsylvania lost their privilegies so they thought their Gemran identity  more important. Aside some smaller fights they cooperated with Hungarians.THis cooperation also targeted against Roumanians of Transylvania beeing in majority in this region.

Situation was very sharpened with Roumanians. They did not support unification of Hungary and Transsylvania. Another Principalities have had unified. THese are Moldva and Havasalflföld. Roumanians of Transylvania desired  to unify with these Regions. More lawsuits proceded at that period. Well known was Lawsuit Memorandum in 1892.  Roumanians submitted their Memorandum to the Emperor.  View the fact that this act meant  intervening to Hungary interior affairs Emperor rejected and sent back to Hungarian Governemeent. Memoranum was published and opened to great public. Memorandum hurted nationalities rights..Because of pulblishing Memorandum some persons were arrested and sentenced.  Dimitrie Sturdza considered or thought that cooperation between Roumania and Hungary should be necessery but Hungarians s should renounce their desire of magyarisation.

Congress of Nationalities held in 10th of august 1895.Result of this Congress was a common point. Participants of Nationalities were Slovaks, Serbes, and Roumainians.Main point of this Program was the aim to establish autonom counties and language borders. They reclamed the deviation from the Law of 1868. One of the appearances was the citation concerning  general, secrecy and d equal ballot. THis endeavour did not realised.

Ethnical minorities-Jews and Gypsies

At that Era because of migration number of Jewish citizens has grown.They gained their legal  equal rights  in 1867.  1895 was the date when Jewish Religion became equal. Thus jewish  emancipation  realised. Jewish people had strong   religious identity and they  identified  with Hungarian national identitity. Because of their social situation antisemitism occured. Hungarian antisemitism did not and could not find support within govermenement. Eg:suit of  Tiszaeszlár 1882

Gypsi population  could be hardly defined. Census of this period asked and scanned mother tongues of minorities. Established life became more and more popular amonst romas.Gypsies worked as craftsmen.(eg:profession of smith).

source: hu.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?

title=Nemzetiségi_politika_a_dualizmus_koraban

Life and work of Eötvös József

Baron vásárosnaményi Eötvös József  Károly Bertalan Adalbert was born in Buda in September the 3rd on 1813. He died in Pest on 2nd of February in 1871.  He was Hungarian lawyer, writer, Minister of Religion and Public Education of Governements  of Batthányi and Andrássy.He was the First President of Hungarian Scientific Academy from 1866 until 1871.He was the First President of Association Kisfaludy from 1860 until 1867.He is the  son of politican Eötvös Ignác and father of physician Eötvös Loránd.

Content

Life

Family

Memory

Publications

Origin

Notes

Sources

Other Informations

Life

He was the son of  Baron Eötvös Ignác and Baron Lilian Anna palace lady. He studied at high-school of Royal Catholic of Budapest and on faculty of letters and history of University of Pest.  He studied from 1826 until 1831. His spiritual and mental arise was influenced by his educator Pruzsinszky József who believed in French Enlightement. Pruzsinszky stirred up young Eötvös interest for politics and philosophy.  He became close friend of Szalay László. THanks to SZalaly his litterary interest forced.

Eötvös was presnet in  Parliament of Bratislava of 1832. He completed his special lawyer examination in 1833. He became deputy clerk  in Fejér County in 1831. In 1835 he entered Hungarian Court  of Chancellery and started his  work of drafter. He got his job of public judge of Court of Appeal of Eperjes in 1837. His career of public clerk  broke until his career of Minister of Public Education and Cultural Affairs.

He travelled in Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, France, Endgland. THese travels served to collect litterary and political i. impressions. Hungarian Scientific Academy elected  Eötvös  correspondant  member  in 14th  of September 1835.He became member in 23rd of November 1839.Later on he got his nominations of Secondary President in 1855  and President in 1870.

Until 1840 he lived in Sály  in  Borsod County on his father's property. Here he devoted himself to litterature.Before the Parliament of 1840 he took his flat to BUda and later to Pest.

His literary career began with the Roman THe Carthausien(A Kartausi) which roman brought him recognition  and success both in litterary world and public life. After election he became memeber of Kisfaludy Association on 25th of November 1838. It was renewed in 1847. Later on 24th of May 1860 he was elected President of Kisfaludy Association.

Other romans:

Clerk of village (1845)

Hungary in 1514(1847)

Sisters(1857)

He published his political theories in his romans,in his trheater plays, and in  Pesti Hírlap.

His declarations created whole books concnerning the amelioration  of jails. His main protector was SZemere Bertalan. After coming home  he wrote about necessity of ameliorating  prisons.

THanks to his publications in  Parliament of 1840  the affair of ameliorating  jails took place. Parliament declared its comittee and Eötvös took place in it.In 1840 he was member of Upper House and parlamental opposition. He left deep impressions because of his cultiated mind and rhetorical talent. In one of  his first   speeches  he protecxted jewish emancipation. In 1841 he published his developed speech. .In his ispeeches he supported Lower House submittings. Sometimes  he deviated from his party point of views but he was right. Exemple is religious affairs.

These affairs were finished based on his oppinion.

The date was  1841 when Count Széchenyi István attacked Pesti Hírlap the prestigious newspapaer of that era.  Baron Eötvös supported Kossuth Lajos and wrote pamphlet "People of East and Pesti Hírlap."  He presented himself in Parliament of 1843.  Baron Eötvös was one of leading personnalities of members of Upper House aside of Counts Batthányi Lajos and Teleki László.Pesti Hírlap became speaking tube of centralisation in 1844. Baron Eötvös worked closely with Szalay László.At that time he had respect and prestige. Here he declared the fact that to prosper Hungary the only political solution is parlamental governing. He published his articles in his book entitled Reform. The book was edited in Leipzig in 1846 and Pest in 1868.The book had appendilxes and explanations  entitled Tasks. (Pesti Hírlap 1847). 

Response of gobernement was the administrating system to reformist endeavours.THus opposition unity strenghtened. Eötvös s was one of those to strenghten untiy forgetting earlier blessings.Later he included idea of parlamental governemenet to political opposition programme

His chances to be elected in Parlament of Bratislava in 1847 were minimal. In Békés County where  he has had estates could not have chances to be elected. So he renounced. He stayed at home and travelled to Bratislava after the district rassembly of 3rd March of 1848. Thanks to Eötvös the idea of 1848 was a glory. The First Responslble Ministry formed. Eötvös got department of religion and public education. He, Deák Ferenc and Széchenyi István formed the group of cenztralist and moderated politicans. Eötvös forwarded  his Bill in the beginning of August but the opposition attacked the forward.  Finally he carried through.  

He patroned  the settlement with governement of Empire but things went towards revolution.After stepping sown of Batthány  Lajos  Prime Minister of that Era and bloody events of 28th of Sepetemeber(lynching of Count Lamberg at Lánchíd) he travelled to Vienna to his family and after to Munnich. From there he devoted his life to litterature and his studies of history  and humanities. 

He came back to Hungary in 1853 and retired to his Buda house. At that year  he published his work in Gemran detailing endeavours  and garanties of Austria superpower.  The book was edited in German in Vienna and in Leipzig. THe book was misunderstood. Lot accused him to sacrifice inheritied laws of Hungary to concessions of Austria. After putting down Revolution he became leading figure of national liberálist movements. He wrote his main work in emigration. Power of leading theories of 19th century  to state.(1854) .From the year of  1855 he only lived to fulfill Academy Scientific and KIsfaludy Association.  Both Asssociations were reorganized by him after the revolution.He was elected President of Acadeny Scientific in 1866. In 1861 he  returned to polititccal scene. He has been elected candidate of Pest City.  His speech of 17th of May beccame famous concerning te debate of titeling answering. Aim of speech was to decide taks in European point of views.In debate proposition of Deák Ferenc won agaisnt Teleki decision-proposition.After he returned back to litterature. 

Baron Eötvös as member of Pest Parliament presented himslef in rassemblies. During years of Temporary Era he orated to the Nation from Presidential Seat of Academy Scientific. 

Eötvös followed Deák politics in Parliaments of 1861, 1865 and 1867. So this politics was identified with Eötvös.He orated once again concerning minorities and after declaring Parliament of 1865 he started his newspaper entitled Political Weekly(Politikai Hetilap).  Politikai Hetilap opened debate on Settlement. He participated in Settlement. He got the Department of Public Education and Religion again in Goermnement of Count Andrassy Gyula (1867-1871).Circumstances became favorable.He declared the liberal law of Popular Public Education(1868.38.tc.).He started reforms of middle and high schools.He proposed the Liberal Minority Law liberal in Europe of that Era. 

He wrote about Jewish emancipation in 1840.When law declaration became possible in 1867 the first law was efquality of Jews(1867. 17. tc.). He created Congress of Israelite for the purpose that Jews can take direction of their affairs of religion and education. He gave to  Orthodox Church the complete  authority with Congress of Serbia and Roumania. He moved the question of autonomy of Catholics from the dead point. He declared the Law of children borned from mixed marriages.(1868. 53. tc.)   

Other laws of Eötvös concerning liberty of religion were lesss successful because of opposition of catholics.

During the debate of finance of 1870 opposition attacked Eötvös viguorusly. THus Eötvös broke down. He travelled to Karslbad for recurring but in December of that year he became seriously ill. He died in Pest in 2nd of February 1871. 

He has been buried in Ercsi in familial grave. His statue was raised in 1879 at the square of his name. 

Family

He married barkócy Rosty Ágnes Katalin Anna in Pest in  13th of September 1842.  (Pest 21st of September 1825-Iharos 9th of May 1913).   Katalin Anna was palace lady of Queen Elisabeth. She was daughter of barkócy Rosty Albert(1779-1847) deputy-lieutenant of Békés County. Mother was Eisenbergi Eckstein Anna(1801-1843). Later on because of marriage he became brother-in-law of Trefort Ágoston. Trefort married with younger sister of Ágnes,Rosty Ilona.Rosty Pál geographer became also brother-in-law. Rosty Pál travelled in Texas, New-Mexico, Mexico, Cuba and Venezuela.He was photographer also.He is also remembered as discoverer. He travelled between  1857-1859. Eötvös József and wife had five children. 

Ilona(1846-1924) husband:földeáky Névay Lajos(1842-1905) 

Jolán(1847-1919) husband:báró pallini Inkey István(1842-1905)

Lóránd(1848-1919) professor of physics, minister, wife:Horváth Gizella(1853-1919)

Mária(1851-1928) husband:Ernst von Plener(1841-1923) Minister of finance of Austria

Dénes(1854-1854)

Rememberance

Collegium Eötvös József(within ELTE)

Eötvös cornice

Eötvös József Price

Eötvös József Assciation of Liberal Thinking of Pedagogy 

Eötvös József high-school Budapest, Szeged, Heves, Tata

Eötvös József Elementary School and High-School Nyíregyháza

College Eötvös József Baja 

Eötvös József technical school and colllege of Seregélyes in Fejér-County

Eötvös József Musical Elementary School Ercsi 

Eötvös József Chapelle and Obelisk Ercsi 

Eötvös József Memorial Museum(Eötvös József house Ercsi)

Statue of Eötvös József Ercsi

Castle and courtyard of Eötvös Ercsi   

Eötvös József Professional High-School Székelyudvarhely

Eötvös József General Cultural Center Diósd 

Eötvös József Elementary School and Basic Art Institut Hajdúböszörmény 

Eötvös József Elementary School Zalaegerszeg

Eötvös József Elementary School Sajókeresztúr

Eötvös József Catholic Elementary School and Kindergarden Orosháza 

Statue of Eötvös József Orosháza 

Eötvös József Evangelist High-School, Health -School and Artistic Professional High-School Sopron 

Publications 

Apotheose of critics written by B:E.J Pest 1831 (reprimenand in lawsuit Conversations-Lexikon against Bajza József) 

Marriing comedy 3 acts written by B.E:J   Pest 1833 

Vengence(sic) sorrowful play in 5  acts Pest 1834 (played in Debrecen in 21st  of April 1836)

Angelo after dr. Hugo VIctor (Pest 1836)

Declaration concerning the amerlioration of jail to Deputy of Borsod-County (Pest 1838) 

Die Emancipation der Juden. Aus dem Ungarischen übersetzt von Hermann Klein (Pest 1840)(2nd edition 1841 in the same place in Hungarian edited in Budapest Szemle and separetely Budaepst 1892Online

(https://archive.org/stream/azsidkemancipci00etgoog#page/n4/mode/2up)Ism.Nemzet 55.sz. in Italian 1842 in the same place 

Kelet  Népe and Pesti Hírlap (https://real-eod.mtak.hu/2668) (Pest 1841)

The carthausian (Pest 1842. Two books (Repeated Atheaneum, 1841) 

Memorial speech abobe Kőrösi Csoma Sándor (https://real-eod.mlak.hu/12817) (Pest 1843) 

Clerk of Village Roman( Pest  1845) three books

Refomr Leipzig 1846 (and Pest 1868 German language dr.H  translation Leipzig, 1846 Online 

(https://archive.org/stream/diereforminunga00etgoog#page/n7/mode/2up)) 

Hungary in 1514 Roman (Pest 1847) (2nd edition Bpest 1886 3rd edition same place 1892. 

in German Dux Adolf translation same placace 1850) 

Über die Gleichberechtigung der Nationalitaten in Österreich (Lipcse, Leipzig 1850)(2nd edition Vienna 1851 3. k. Pest 1871 Online

(https://archive.org/stream/ueberdiegleichb00etgoog#page/n7/mode/2up))

A XIX. század uralkodó eszméinek befolyása az álladalomra

(https://mek.aszk.hu/06600/06619/index.phtml) (Bécs és Pest, 1851, 1854) két kötet (AZ OSZK Magyar Elektronikus Könyvtár programjában) 

Nővérek. Regény (Pest, 1857) két kötet 

Elbeszélések (PEst 1859)

Die Garantien der Macht und Eincheit Oesterreichs (Lipecse 1859)

Felelet b.. Kemény Gábor nehány szavára (pest 1860)

Die Sonderstellung Ungarns vom Standpunkte der Einheit Deutschlands (Lipcse 1859) (írta egy magyar államférfiu, németből ford. Toldy István:Magyarország különállása Németország egységének szempontjából. Pest 1861)

Emlékbeszéd gr.SZéchenyi István felett. Pest 1860 (Németül uo.1860)

1861.máj.17. tartott országgyűlési beszéde (Pest 1861) (Néemetül uo.1861)

Gyöngysarok b. Eötvös József összes szépirodalmi műveiből fűzte Vachott Sándorné (Pest 1861)

Gondolatok( Pest 1865)

A nememzetiségi kérdés (Pest 1865) Németül  

(https://archive.org/stream/dienationalitt00etuoft#page/n3/mode/2up)

B.Eötvös József emlékbeszdei Magyarok, államlférfiak (Pest 1868) (Emléksbeszédkek: Kölcsey Ferenc, Körösi DCsoma Sándor, gróf Dessewfy József, Vörösmarty Mihály, Kazinczy Ferenc, gróf SZéchenyi István, Reguly Antal, SZalay László, gróf Dessewfy Emil:

Elnöki megnyitó beszédek I-X.)  Online 

(https://archive.org/stream/magyarrks00etuoft#page/n5/mode/2up)

B.Eötvös József költeményei. (Budapest 1871) (Székey Bertalan és Lotz Károly rajzaiveal )

A vallás -és közoktatási m.k.miniszternek az országgyűlés elé terjesztett jelentése a néppiskolai közoktatás állapotáról (Buda 1870-71) két rész 

Für den Glanz des Hauses. Nach einem unvollendeten Romane des Verf bearbeitet und erganzt von Adolf Dux(Wien 1873)

Origins 

Family Tree  of Eötvös József 

Notes 

Sources 

Further informations 

Source: Eötvös József (író)-Wikeipedia  Eötvös József(writer )-Wikipedia 


Hosting of Polish refugees during Second World War 

Polish refugees in Hungary 1939-1945

Content 

Antecedants, diplomatic contacts between the two countries between the two World-Wars 

Hosting of refugees, organization of Polsih Home opposition 

Evacuation of Polish sokdiers and social network of Polish refugees

Secret negotiantions -Consequences of German occupation 

Sources 

Notes

Jozef Beck life and  work

Gróf Teleky Pál life and work

Antall József Senior life and work

Antall József life and work

Józef Pilsudski life and work     

Antecedants.diplomatic contacts between the two countries between the two World-Wars 

While Poland and Polish people profitated in regard of closing of First World War, Hungary suffered. 

Poland was reborn in a positive  manner. Hungary suffered of Versailles Treaties. Two-third of Hungarian territores were annexed to neighboring countires so people of these territories became citizens of neighboring countires. Ethnical and political conflicts persist until now as consequences of Versailles Treatites.

Hungarian-Ploish frontieer of thousand years come to an end.Treaties of Versailles came with hard economic and international consequences  to Hungary.  Polish-Hungarian friendship and association weakened. 

At that time social compound and problems of both countures are similar but ideas concerning foreign politics show difference.

Poland centered his efforts to maintain obtained territories (status quo). Hungary endevaured to recapture lost territories.  THe point of vue of Hungarian foreign affairs was to convince Plish collegaues about differentate Hungarian peace process and deroulement of  other territory arrangements. It was out of condition at that time. Polish thought  that peace processes are not independent because in jthis case the system breaks down. 

THere happened some secret diplomatic contact establishements between Poland and Hungary in 1920's s in time of Prime Minister Bethlen István. Success was for Hungary to retain Poland to enter fo Small Antant. Concerning Poland it was neceesary to retain taugh friendship of Hungarian s towards Geramny and also to ease angry reeallationships amongst Hungary and Roumania and also Hungary and Yougoslavia. 

Main changes occured in Hungarian-Polish foreign cooperation when in years 1930 evidence occured concerning Hitler aims to parcel territories of Tchecoslovakia. So State of young Tchecoslovakia would have been finished. Relationship concerning State of Tchecoslovakia was the e main foundation of relations between Poland and Hungary. Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs Józef Beck relied on Hungary to establish Alliance "from ocean to ocean".Foreign politics of Eduard Benes politican Tchecoslovak  has been supported mainly by France.Although leadrship endevouring of Tchecoslovakia stopped Poland  plans  in Eastern-Europe. THis situation was supported by the fact that economic situation of Poland was less favorable than situaton of Thcecoslovakia. At that Era Thchecoslovakia was an industrially developed country. Standing out of Polish foreign politics was heleped by a Polish-Hungarian "gentlemen agreement". This  was a non written military-polititcal  agreement, alliance. Meaning wanted showing "succesful polititcal cooperation". 

Hungarian and Polish cooperation has been main before 1934 mainly in culture. Later on political visits started also. Such an exemple was the visit in 1934 of Gömbös Gyula and Kánya Kálmán to Warsaw. In 1936  Polish Prime Minister Marian LZyndram-Koscialkowski visited to Hungary. For theat occasion was edited the Polish-Hungary bilingual album. In 1938 Governor Horthy visied to Warsaw. Cultural  politics of Klebesberg Kuno played main role in foundation of Polish-Hungarian Cultural Institut. To avoid German agression diplomatic  corps of Poland and Hungary coordinated their strategies  against Tchequeslovakia.An agreement born in Septemeber of 1938 on handing over of Szudéta Region.  This Agreement came from Prime Ministers of England, France, Italy, and Germany. Because Germany needed Szudéta Region peace shoudl have been maintained. Pololand has not been invited to negegotiantions. Region over Olza and Teschen Regions were annexed to Poland. 

According to the First Decalaration of Vienna Hungarian Army occupied south part of Slovakia where Hungarian population is considerable. The date of occupation was 2nd of Noveember 1938. Military reattachment of Kárpátalja resulted the reassemblement of Polish-Hungarian freontieer.(15th of  March 1939). According unspoken of German Governement occupation of these territories happened between the 15th and 18jth of March. Territorial question of Slovakia seemed main question. Good alliance of Beck, ,Prime Minister of Poland, with Slovakia gave reason to the Hungarian Governement of Teleki to prospect annexing Slovakia to Hungary. THis plan crossed Hitler endeavours. Hitler decided to support the Sovereign State of Slovakia. Warranties arrived to Poland about French and English support although Hitler decided to attack. Hitler signed The Fall Weiss Plan on 11th of April. He broke Friendship Contract with Poland that he signed in 1934.Although negotiantions stopped. In month of April German press raises progpaganda activities against Poland. Hungarian people accentued their aversion for German press.Demonstrations and orations highlighting friendship of Poland and Hungary suidted. A  vernissage of art is followed in Warsaw attrackting masses. Declaration of Csáky István Minister of Foreign Affairs  appeared also in press on 27th of April 1939.

He ordered Villani Frigyes Ambassador of Hungary in Rome to ripost in case Berlin should ask statement of Hungary. 

Hungary is allied to German Empire. In case of armed conflict against Poland Hungary does not participate. Not directly nor indirectly. Indirectly means crossing by walk or vehicles the lterritories of Hungary to attack Poland will be rejected.In case Germans menace with agressions and armed attack, Hungarian answer will be armed attack.Alll those who enter to Hungary without premrission are ennemies.  

Hungarian  Minister  of Foreign Affairs emphasized the fact that Hungary deoes not want to be part of a German-Polish war. 

Main n goal of visite of Prime Minister  Teleki Pál and Csáky István Minister of Foreign  Affairs  was to consolidate Polish situation. Date was April 1939. 

Ribbentrop outraged because of Plan Axis Rome-Belgrad-Budapest-Warsaw. This plan was edited in German language paper Pester Llyold publeshed in Budapest. Answer of Teleki was mediation between Plish and German. Ribbentrop thought this negotiation not useful. He  believed German leading was overwhelming.In case of military demonstration England would betray Pland. Warsaw signed THe Commercial Act Between Poland and Hungary in 29th of April 1939. Consequences were economic losses.THis Act and related facts deepened uncertain political situation of Hungary and governement of Hungary. Germany showed hostility concerning association between Poland and Hungary. To  avoid German hostility Budapest made some steps. International Associations manifested for the maintaining of Polish-Hungarian  friendship at the Anniversary of Death of Pilsudski. Polish Institute of Budapest opened at Pázmány Péter Scientific University in 26th of May 1939.Openeing was initiated by Polish Governement and got Hungarian support. Hungariana Governemenet did not contract friendship association but he assured abotu it. When reelected Horthy told that law of real friendship relies us to Poland.After a break of century Poland re-became our neighbour. 

Csáky István attired the attention of Leon Orlowski Ambassador of Poland in Budapest to the fact of arriving of a crisis in German-Polish relationships.He did not believe that a war will follow.  He expounded Hungaian point of view that Hungary would never provoke an armed conflict against Poland.In 24th of July Teleki wrote two  letters to Hitler. Hitler dismayed concerning point of view of Hungairan forieng politics.In first  letter Teleki accentued Hungary belonging to Axis powers.In second one he emphasized moral reasons. He could not begin war against Poland for moral reasons. Polsih-Hungarian sympahthy manifestations increased such a point that Ernst Woermann Vice-Foreign Secretaaire announced to Sztójay Döme Ambassasor of Hungary the stopping of supplying of some army materials until uncertain point of view of Hungairan Governement. he 

Attacks of Luftwavffe against Poland began in 1st of Septemeber   1939 at 4.40 at noon. Five minutes after the attack The War Boat Schleswig-Holstein fired also to Fortresse Westerpalette  from Gdansk-Gulf where he stayed on visit of friendship. Mainlaland corps attacked Poland from North, South, , and West. 

On 3rd of September England, Australia,New-Zealand, France, Canada , Norvege declared war to Germany.Governamenet of Poland got only empty promises. Poland stayed alone in war fightings.German Corps  reached Warsaw on 8th of Septemeber and fenced the town. Polish citizens fighted with National Soldiers to maintain Warsaw. On 17th of Septemeber Soviet Red Army broke in to Warsaw ac ording to Secret Clause Molotov-Ribbentrop.

Second Front founded Polish Governement sent his Corps partly to Romania, partly to Hungary. Governement  transferred  his residence to allied  Roumania. In hopeless  situation Warsaw sureendered. Prime Minister of Roumania was interned and fled members of departements were also interned. General Headquarters were ordered to stop political activiteies. All this happened for French intention.Wladislaw Sikorski who resided in Paris was  charged to create governement. Here established the Polish Geverneent of Emigration  After falling of France in 1940 it was transferred to London. 

Hosting of refugees and organisation of Polish opposition 

Following the  attack of Poland Germany alsways tested friendship of Hungarian Governement towards Poland. On 7th of Septemeber Count Csáky István Minister of Foreign Affairs got denial concerning invasion of Roumania.Csáky renounced the transferring of some territories of Poland. He believed that Hitler planeed to cross Poland.Day was the Septemeber 9 when a phone demand named the railway Kassa-Homonna-Lupko for military corps transferring.Minister Csáky denied to permit. Later Ambassador of Germany in Budapest  got a list of it. Hitler did not look at as an ultimatum but time passed he reproached it to Hungary. 

First Polish refugees crossed Hungarian border individually, in small groups, and in masses between 10-17th of Septemeber. Positive approache of Teleki Governement to civil and military refugees was main because Polish-Hungarian common frontieer and solidarity of Hungarian population wouldn not have been enough.Debates happen on the number of Polish refugees arrived to Hungary. Some estimations take this number to between 100-140 thousand. Other estimations take the number between  50-55 thousand. Different estimations have several reasons. THere are no valuable statistics from first monthes. Lot of people did not stay in Hungary, because oppenness of frontieers between Poland-Hungary and Yugoslavia-Hungary. Counting became more difficult because several person were registered on the same name in lists. THis process was needed because of situation against Germany. SOme point of views tell 70 thousand refugees arrived to Hungary. 

Governement of emigration established in France began to constukrct political and military network to establish miltiary and civil contacts with Poland under military occupation. It was  helped by neutralism of HUngary,Roumainia, Yougoslavia and Iraly to Poland.Aim was to establish a combart ready Polish army in France. Illegal military bases establishement began in Roumania, Lihthuania and Hungary. 

Above the military bases of three countries the Hungarian bases survided until the end of war. Their covering   names were "W-set","Romek","Liszt","Pestka". THeir tasks were maintaining milititary contacts and organise military escape to France. 

Polish Refugee Organisations in Hungary had a role between Emigrant Governement and Home Resistance. The date of foundation of Underground  Comabat Association Armed (ZWZ) was 13th of November 1939. Later name was Army of Home. Leader who was appointed by Prime Minister iSikorski  Kaziemierz Sosnkowski.THis Army served as home froce of governement.

Role of mediation of Esterházy János President of United Hungary Party  of Tchecoslovaquia gave possitbility to General Sosnowski to arrive to Ungvár disguised. Targeted visit aimed meeting with Prime Minister Wladyslaw Sikorsiki.He negotiated in Budapest in autumn 1939. 

Esterházy János mother Polish  Countesse Elzbieta Tarnowska and younger sister with family lived in Polandk. Esterhaházy János took main role in lodging and supplying of refugees of Poland in Hungary. He was member of Parlaoment of Slovakia and enjoying parlamentary privilege he transported Polish people in frontieer of Slovakia-Hungary. Although he helped in arrangement of safe  deposit of Polish Treasures in Hungarian National Museum.He also helped of arranging banking deposits in Credit Bank of Hungary. 

Captured or surrendered Polish soldiers  to Germans got help from him beause he made use of his contacts with Slovak Authorities. 

To arrange refugee question Polsih Governement  cooperated with Teleki Governement from 17th of September 1939.Comittee came several times to Budapest. Members were Kobylansky Chief of Cabinet of Polish Foreign Minister.,President of National Bank of Poland Jerzy Nowak and some officers of governement.As result of negotiantions Polsih-Hungarian Committee of Affairs of Refugees founded. 

Evacuation of  Polish soldiers and social networking system of Polish refugees  

According to Deparetement of Military Affairs to date 22nd of Septemeber 1939 fundamental principle was that military refugees from Poland were not considered  prisoneers of war.

They were considered as interned foreigners.They lived as interned in Hungary.  

Csáky wrote as follows in his daily report about communication to Ambassador of Poland in Budapest. 

1.Transiting soldiers:according to war law we disarm them and take them to intern camps. 

2.Civil refugees:we differentiate a:those who supply themselves and b:those who need supply. 

Category a people are treated as any froeigners coming to Hungary. Other categories are placed to refugee camp. 

Militaires interned were taken to worst circumstances then civils.Hundred and forty -one military camps have been suddenly establsihed. Men of the rank and officers of lower grades were accomodated in schools, villages, usine buildings.Field officers were accomodated in separate camps for officers or they lived in sanatoriums, hotels, villas.Number of military camps diminished to twenty-one  in half years. Most of soldiers traveled to organizing army in France. 

Back to late autumn 1939 evacuation became organized. Earlieer they traveled alone and Comitte of Refugees helped them with documuments and money. Politicans and officers of high-rank travelled. (eg:Kazimierz Sosnowski, Stanislaw Sosabowski future commander of First Independent Parachutiste Brigade).

Representation of Polish soldiers functioned in Departement 21 of Ministry of Military Affairs. THis authority was wider than civil one. Second stage of evacuaton began from May 1940 to England because France has been occupied by nazi Germany. Affiars of military refugees were undertaken by colonels Baló Zoltán and later Utassy Zoltán. 

Due to fact that between civil refugees there were lot of children and women Teleki Governement implemented social decisions concerning them. Social decisions implemented were executed by IX. Suppling of Poors and General Aid and Social Departement. 

Keresztes- Fischer Ferenc Minister of Interior Affairs delegated Antall József Senior to direct the Deplartement.Antall József arranged Polish refugee affairs until nazi occupation of 1944 as attache of Governemenet. Affairs of civils did part of his work officially . In reality  he had take care of military intern camps.  First part of evacuation finished v civil refugees could take individual supply. 

THey could have daily extra  honorairries depending on number of their family members and baded on scolarity. They received aid after their families if they worked. Soldiers got their pay.Hungarian-Polish  Comittee of Refugees,Polish-Hungarian Association of Assemblies and Hungarian Red Cross supported refugees from the beginnings Aid was only enough for daily  life.Later Polish politicans got out off Hungarian-Polish Committee of Refugees and created Polish Civil Committee.This Committee represented affairs to Governemenmet of Hungary. 

Social support meant not only aids.Main taks were establishment of educational and health systems.

Elementary and high-school education: Education had high importance at that period because of 200 high-school students and 300 elementary school lpupils who came to Hungary without parents. Elementary and skilled worker education got official recongnition because of German authorities.High-school and superiior education were not officially recognized. From the autumn of 1940 elementary and high-school are transferred to Balatonboglár and these institutions continue their work under the name Youth Camp. Leader of Youth Camp was  Varga Béla parson, representant of Independant Smallholder Parry. THis school  was the only Polish language and Polish syllabus school in Europe. Polish Institute kept close contacts with several schools(elementary schools in Kadarkút, Keszthely, Nagykanizsa, Eger, etc.).Education nof  Jewish children of Poland and thir living were also resolved.An outstanding exemple was THe Home of Polish Orphelins Officers at Vác.

Superior Education:Process of Polish students to superior education have had been submittted. Circa 500 Polish students particapated in Hungarian education of colleges and universities.Finishing their studies after the war they returned to home country and have rebuilt intellectual professions.

Health care system: Medical supporting system was foundeded for Polish Polish refugees. Group of Polish Medical Doctors functioned through Hungarian Red Cross. Polish Military Hospital having 140 beds opened in 1940.  

Other hospital departements functioned at Mátraháza, Keszthely and Mátészalka.

Culutural life:Organiuzing cultural life have had strength of curing in regard of refugees. A  Polish Journal Wiesci Polskie was edited until German occupation. Aided by Hungarian Miekiewicz Association(founded in  1929)  and Polish Institute cultural programs  were organized.One of these programs were series of theatre programs. 

Secret negotiations-Consequences of German occupation

Polish political and military organizations foundedied in Hungary not only served the aim of nurturing refugees but they constructed an important liaison between Polish emigrant governement and Polish resistance. They filled important mission betewen emigrant governement ztransferring to London and Poland in maintaing tasks. Liaison was resolved taking the help of a well organized messenger service between Budapesnt and Warsasaw and Bubudapest and London.Organization was successful because of help of  Antall József Senior in regard of acquisition of passports and permits of living. Diplomatic Messenger Service of é   Depeartaement of Foreign Affairs also gave help in transporting Polish reports to London. The Year was 1943 when  Kállay Governement established contact with Emigrant Governementmt of Poland. Kállay delegated Varga Bla parson, representant of Independent Smallholder Party to reperesent Hungary symbolically to Polish Governement. In peace negotiations of Hungary, in first part of 1943 Polish Refugee Associations and Diplomatic Corps of neutral countries mediated at British Departement of Foreign Affairs.Turning point was brought by Szegedy-Maszák Aladár, chef of political departemement. He continously and secretely negotiated in Stockholm. Kövér Gusztáv representent of Hungarian Red Cross established contact nearby Polish Ambassy of Lissabon.

Kállay Governement thought with chefs of Polish Orgranizations that British-American Military Corps helped by Polish Corps reaching Istrian-Peninsula can advance Soviets and at Region of Balkan reach Hungarian Frontieer.Hungary could have open the gate to Polish Corps towards Poland. ALthough these plans crashed because of German occupation of Hungary in 19th of March 1944 and intervention of Stalin against the plan. Massive arrestations followed and all legal Polish organizations have been wind up.Civil refugees were pursued and refugees were interned to military camps.Lot of them have been transferred to concentration camps and executed. Horthy  Miklós intervened at the Delegate based in Budapest of Hungarian Red Cross asking protection for Polish refugees.Although Germans carried off Polish citizens. Hungarian population  helped and protected Polish in Hungary  and helped them to survive last monthes of war.  Lot of them exiled to partisans of Slovakia and Soviets captured them. Years passing they returned to Poland. 

Antall József Senior was arrested with Chef Committee of Civil Association Polish.Edmund Fietowicz was executed.During interrogations interrogated Ploish  suspects did not give edidence against Antall József. President of Civil Committee Henryk Slawik had been executed in Mauthausen Camp.

Last group of Polish lost  Hungary in 10th of August 1946.Their home entry was arranged by Zbigniew Kazimierski chef of "Mission of Polish Transfering." Small number of Polish who stayeds raised their families and established. 

Source:Polish refugees in Hungary 1939-1945 Wikipedia

Józef Beck

Józef Beck was born on 4th of October 1894 and died on 5th of June 1944.He was a Polish Statesman serving The Second Republich of Poland. He served as diplomat and military officer. He was a close associate of Józef Pilsudski. Beck's most famous work is his foreign ministry period. in the 1930s.At that period he largely set Polish foreign policy.

His dream was to fulfill Pilsudski political vision of making  Poland leader of of a regional coaliliton. For that aim he was widely disliked by other governements. Beck has been involved in territorial disputes with Czechoslovakia and Lithuania.Beck sometimes accomodated to Germany and Soviet Union, sometimes he defied these two main but hostile powers. His aim targeted to try to take advantage of their mutual antagonism. THese 

negotiations proved unsuccessful so he formed alliance  with Great-Britain and France.Despite mutual agreement these countries did not help Poland effectively.At the tiem of invasion of Poland in 1939 Beck and rest of Polish Governement evacuated to Roumania. 

Contents

Early life 

Foreign minister

Strategic ideas

1939:nazi invasion

World War II.

Honors 

Notes

Sources 

Esternal links

Early life

Beck was born in a Calivnist (Protestant) family whose forbears were Flander  emigrants to Poland. These Flander  forbears travelled to Poland in 16th cetury during Stephen Báthory rule. At the start of First World War Beck was an engineering student in a College of Engineering. When First World Wer started Beck was member of a clandestine sPolish Military Organization(Polska Organizacja Wojskova POW).POW was founded in October 1914 by Polsudski. Beck joined in 1914 and served until 1917 as an aide of Pilsudksi in the First Brigade of Polish Legions. After internship of the Brigade Beck fledged. Afger Poland regained independence Beck was named Commander of an artillerie battery and assigned to General Staff. Between 1922 and 1923 Beck served as military attache to France. French dislied Beck and spread lies about him.One of these lies was that fBeck was Soviet Agent. He was a part of Coup d'Etat of May 1926 helping Pilsudski to de facto governemental power. 

In between 1926 and 1930 Beck served in Poland Minister of Military Affairs as Chief of Staff. From 1930 until 1932 he was in service of Poland as Vice Prime Minister and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 1932 he took the Office of Minister of Foreign Affairs. Groomed by Polsudski he implemented Poland's foreign policy.He took Minister of Foreign Affairs Office until outbreak of Second World War. 

Foreign Minister 

Beck was known as as weak handedd.Accordidng to historian David G.williamson Poland had a large population fwith 35 million pople but thin industrial base. Poland had an army of 283.000 soldiers and was poorly-equipped, short of artilleery and poorly trained.Due to fact of missing mechanization it relied on its cavalry. Final problem that came in has been facing the two leading dictatorships of that Era:USSR  of Stalin and Germany of Hitler. Let us us cite the oppinion of historian Richard Overy. 

Poland, according to Overy was the most disliked country and Beck the most distrusted Foreingn Minister. Poland's purisuit of independence left close freiends behind by the end of 1938.For Western countries  Poland became a greedy revidionist, anti-Semitic,pro-German country. Minister Józef  Beck was an arrogant and treacherous "menace". 

In Poland foreign politics Beck maintained a fine balance between USSR and Germany. THis politic meant anyway the conclusion of non-agression pacts . Soviet Union and in January 1934 with Germany. (german-Polish Non-Agression Pact). 

Beck compalined because of respective Plish minorities in Germany and Soviet Union were not enough protected.Although Beck resented also because Germany took The Minorities Treaty to intrude to internal  affairs of Poland and to pressurise.In Septemeber 1934 Józef Beck renouneced the Minorities Treaty after admission of Soviet Union to the League o

When Pilsudski  died in May 1935 a power-sharing agreement entered by. various factions near to Pilsudksi. Led by General(Marshal) Edward  Rydz-Smigly,President  Ignacy Moscicki and Józef Beck. These three politicans effectively dominated Sanacja(Sanation)and ruled Poland Poland until the beginning of Second World War. Beck got more or less free hand to ledad Poland foreign policy. THe stability of the ruling triad weekened. None of the three men of the state could assert his dominance in late 1930s. THis weird oligarchy betweewn 1935-1939 and political situation established by them is often described as "dictarorship without a  dictator". 

Strategic ideas 

Beck showed hostility to the League of Nations and not believed in help. France forced soem arrangements with Poland but mistrutsted Beck.So Bek investigated into new possibilities. He explored Polsudlski concerpt of Myedzimorze ("Between-seas"). THis starategy meant the  foudndation of a federation of Central and East-euroepaean countries. In first view this Federation would stetch from the Baltic to the Black Seas. In later variatnts from Arctic Ocean to Mediterranean. A  coalition between Germany in the West and Soviet Union in the East might have been strong enough to avoid military invterviention. Anlthough Beck realized the unpossibility of buoilding such a Federation for the immeidate future.Therefore, he was prepared to settle for a diplomatic bloc refered  to as "Third Europe". THis project would have been led by Poland and might  become might  the nucleus of Myedzimorze federation. Beck's '"Third Europe" diplomatic concept included Poland, Italy, Yugoslavia, Hungary and  Romania.These efforts failed. THere are several reasons :

-Italy and Hungary aligned themselves with Germany not with Poland 

-Dispute between Romania and Hungary decreased efforts to reassamble them in a bloc. Subject of dispute was Transsylvania. 

-The desire of Italy and Hungary to partition Yugoslavia between the two blocked any effort to include Rome, Budapest and Belgrade in an alliance. 

-None of the othir four states were interested to form the "Third Europe" with Poland.

Between 1935 and 1939 Beck supported German claims against Czekoslovakia.He cited purported mistereatement of Polish minorities in this country.The year was  1937 when he began his diplomatic  offensive in favor of  Slovak  independence .He suupproted Hitler in regard of Munich Agreement in 1938. Within days Poland occupied and seized Teschen the industrial district of Czechoslovakia with many ethnic Poles.

1939:Nazi invasion 

In 1937 Hilter continously assured Beck that Germany had no claims on Danzig. Although in early 1939 Hitler changed his position and claimed on Danzig without military agression. Beck role was main in early 1939  wehen he staunchly refused Hitler's demands to subordinate Poland to Germany's puppet-state.Hitler demand aimed Poland entrance to Anti-Comintern Pact directed against Soviet Union. Bek rejected Hitler demands to annexe Polish Pomorze(Pomerania). This act would have cut off Polish access to the sea. It  would have cut the main trade road also. In this case Poland would have been dependent on Germany.He also refused demands for an extraterritorial rail and highway corridor to run to East Prusiia and Free City of Danzig. In exchange vague promises assured Beck regarding trade and annexation of territories lived by Ukranans  and Beloriusiians after a future war.  Hitler planned to annex Poland for several year, s  hed decided to realisze his war lplans by early September  1939.

Beck was surprised on Britain reatcion to defend Poland from German attack .  Britain communicated his annonce by the end of March 1939. France also offered his support.There was very little help to offer in case of German attack. 

In April 1939 Beck negotiataed in London terms of British-Polish aid treaty. Beck orated his his refusal of German demands in his speech of 5 May 1939:

He told that peace is precious and desirable. Theri generation who lived and bloodied in wars will deserce peace. According to Beck peace has its high and mesurable price. Polish do not know the concept of peace at any price. Only one thing is is without lprice in lives of men, nations and countries. That thing is  honor.

Although Beck also refused Soviet forces to enter Poland. During talks the Polish side did not take part.In case Ploand would be endagered British aid proposal came.It formulaed a support to Polish Governemenet.At that time Beck accepted  that lproposal.According to to Joseph E.Davies, the Polish Governement underestimated military power and danger of Germany. 

In August 1939 the well known Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact secured the alliance between Adolf Hiltler and Vissarionoitch Dsugasvili Stalin. It secured Soviet support in a war,a heavy flow  of Soviet oil and food. It also highlighted an atreement to partition Poland and the split up of Baltic States. By this stage imminent war between Germany and Poland came to evidence. 

WOrld War II

When Germany invaded Poland on 1st of Septemenber 1939 Poland and Beck called France and Britain to secure Poland.In spite of help they refused to give direct help. Both of them declared war two days after German invasion against Poland. Soviet attack came from East on 17th of Septemeber 1939.Beck withdrew to Romania with ther rest of Polish governement. 

Romanian authorities  interned Beck in a hotel in Brasov.  There he wrote his memoirs Ostatni raport(Flinal Report). 

Popular Polish journalist Melchior Wankowicz interviewed Józef Beck in autumn of 1939 during his internement in Romania.  

Beck was locked in a golden cage of a luxurious hotel in Brasov. He and his team occupied oen floor. He got strong guard.When he went out to to the street German and Romainan agents followed him. During the interview Beck emphasized his achievements of last month.  A  military treaty with England, refusal of Hungary to let German German troops traversing Hungarian  land, droit der residence, droit de pasasge granted to him by Governement of Romania. Beck believed in a solid coalition and that Poland would negotiate while Czechoslovakia would remain out. He did not take care of Lloyd George statement that Poland as a reactionary country did not deserve help. Lord Halifax aimed to recreate Curzon Line although this fact did not frustrate Beck.He highlighted that when King of Great-Britain gave gave a radio speech only English, French, and Polish anthems were played.

He negotiated with Hitler several times. According to Beck Hitler was influenced by von Ribbentrop. H

Józef Beck died in Singureni Romania on 5 June 1944.He caught tuberculosis.  His son Andrzej Beck survidved him. Andrzej Beck played an active active role in the Polish community in United States until his death of 2011.

Beck's remains were repatrieated to Poland and interred at Warsaw Powazki Military Cemetery in May 19k91. 

Source:Wikipedia Józef Beck

Teleki Pál (politican)

Széki gróf Teleki Pál (count) full name Teleki Pál János Ede was born in Budapest Austria--Hungarry in 1st of November 1879.Hed died in Budapest Hungarian Kingdom  on 3rd of of April 1941. 

He was born into Noble Tlekeki Family. He was a sceientific of geogrpahy, teacher, politican. Several times elected representant of Parliament. Firstly he filled the post of Foreign Ministry of Hungarian Kingdom in 1920.This was  Simonyi-Semadam Governement. After that he filled Prime Ministry beteween 1920-1921 when stepping down. Following,he got Ministry of Religion and Public Education in Imredy Governement from 1938 to 1939.Following elections of 1939 he has been elected Prime Minister again and in 1941  as consequence of his suicide he died. He has also been member of Hungarian Scientific Academy.  He was nominated Honorable Scout of Hungairna Scout Association. 

Family

He originates from noble, Roman Catholic Count Family,sz széki Teleki Family.His father was Count széki Teleki Géza(1843-1913) writer and politican. Széki Teleki Géza served as Minister of Interior Affairs for short time.Hed served in Tisza Kálmán Governement. Mother was Muráty(Muratisz )Irén (1852-1941)daughter of rich,greek commercant in Pest. 

Teleki maried Countesse Bissingen-Nipenburg Johanna (1889-1942) on 24th of November 1908 in Budapest. Bissingen Nippenburg Johanna was the daughter of Count Bissingern Nippenburg Rezső Antal Gábor and foeni Mocsonyi Georgina.

From this marriage two chidlren were  born. Teleki Mária (1910-1962)  and Teleki Géza(1911-1983). Son of Géza became geologist , university professor. He filled this post at Kolozsvár. He worked there from 1940 until 1944. After that he was elected Minister of Religion and Public Education of National Transtitory Governement. Date is years of 1944-45. He o emigrated to North-America in 1949.One of his grand -sons Teleki Géza became famous anthropologist in United States. 

Studies

He studied in elementary school as private student at elementary public evangelist school in Budapest.  This school was located at the antecedant place of Deák Ferenc Square.Elementary studies happened beteween 1885-89. Middle studies continued as private student at Piarist High-School between 1889-97.

After high-school studies in September  1897 he started his law studies in Budapest Scientific Scientifuc University Science of Law and State Departement.He audited lectures of geography at Natural Science Departement . He published in Periodicals of Geogography.He also gave lectures in Society of Geography. He specialized in Asian discoveries.He gave presentation of his rapport at Association of Natural Science in public  meeting of 15th of December 1898. 

He also attended important events of Erdléy Association during university period.He was guest of huntings of Zsuki. He also participated at Charity Bazaar of Kolozsvár. He got university diploma in 1901.

Next year he began Hungarian Royal Academy of Economics f  as guest attendant.This school was located at Magyaróvár.He attendeded second year of two years educaton.He failed in April 1902 and next year  he failed again on the administrative law exam. Finally after his rapport submitted etitled "Question of Main Foundation of State" he graduated as Doctor of State  Scienceces in Deceember 1903.

Scientific work

He has been intern at delpartement of geography geography of Lóczy Lajos  from 1902. From 1904 he filled his service of deputy sheriff in Szatmár. In March and April of 1906 he travelled lot. THese were travels related to sf tudies.  He visivisited Sudan and Europe. He became Scientific Director of Geographic Institiut Publishing Company between 1909-  1913.From 1910 until 1923 he was secretary-general of the comapny.His work of 1911 entitiled "Atlas to cartographic history of Japan Islands" got Jomard-Prize. In August-Septemeber of 1912 he travelled around United States with Cholnoky Jenő. As result he wrote the work Economical Geography of America in 1922.In 1913 he was elected correspondant member by Hungarian Scientific Academy. Becauses of war his inaugural took place in 1917.In 1913 he got the position of teacher of School of Forming Teachers in Commerce.He became member of Association of Turan.Later he got President.

In First World War he served as volunteer. In war he created his early, main work:History of Geographical Idea.From the autumn of 1918 he created with his collegaues the ethnical map of Hungarian Kigdom. After fthat he made the famous "red carte" on which he pointed hungarian nationalities red.(carte rouge).

Political career

He elected himself first time at the elections of1905. He represented Hungarian Constitution Party. Leader was Andrássy Gyula Junior. THis party was formed from liberal thinker "dissidents".The Hungarian Constitution ConstitParty was officially registered after the elections. Teleki became representant of Parliament in the election district of Nagysomkút in Szatmár County.He won his mandate again on the elections of 1906.When the failure of coalition governement became evident in 1910,he retired temprarely. At that time he weighed not in politics. Until 1917 he fulfilled his military service as lieutenant. He served in battle-line s of Serbia and Croatia. At that time he got nominated to head office of War Tereatment Office of Hungary.After winning of Károlyi Mihály and Revolution of Rose Autumn he stopped. He stayed in Switzerland during The Hungarian-Soviet Republic. During that time for request of Comittee Antibolchevique he represented himself as Foreign Minister in governements of Counter-Revolution of Szeged. 

He gained his new mandate in elections of 1920 in inner-city of Szeged lpresenting Christian National Union Party.In Governement Simonyi-Szemadam formed on 15th of March,SImonyi-Szemadam invited Teleki to accept Foreign Ministry.He accepted on 19th of Alpril.He was present at Signature of  Peace Treaty of Trianon as Foreign Minister of Hungary. Two other memebers of Delegation of HUngary signed. SImonyi -Szemadám Governement dismissed one month after Signature Act. Horthy requested Teleki  to form new cabinet and he accepted. 

 First  Period of Prime Ministry

Governor Horthy Miklós nominated Teleki Prime Minister on 25th of July 1920 and he accepted.At the same time he filled thke position of Minister of National Minorities. He governed Foreign Cabinet also. He dismissed from Prime Ministry when King Charles Foru (IV.Károly Krály) tendted to return to power. Date was 14th of April 1921. regula

Contradictory  fact of first governorng perido of Teleki was The Law Numerus Clausus. Neumerus Clausus Law XXV.  1920. It  means close and meant the regulation   of inscriptios to Universities of Technical University of Budapest, to DDepartement of Economical Science of Budapest and Avademies of Law. Close meant constant number.The Law was handed into the Parlialament by Minister of Religion and Education. . Acceptance came in Septemeber 1920. 

Aim of Numerus Clausus was to correct numbers of students of higher education to real or created needs of the country and block the number of students accepted.Students learningh in higher  education  had to reflect average number of populations in Hungary. Main goal of the law was to assurre Hungarians average participation in universities. Lot considered Bumerus Clausus as First Jewish Law. It limeited Jewish populations rights.Law treated Jewish as nationaliy not as religion.

After First Prime Ministry Period 

In 1925 he participated in testing process of Frontieer between Turkey-Iraq. He has been delegated as member of Moszul-Committee  of Populist Association. 

He weighed in scientific life of his  Era. He filled positions of Professor ad Dean at Budapest University of Economical Sciences.In 1937-38 he filled Chancelor position of József  Nádor Technical and Economical University, later Technical University.At that time Curator of Eötvös College. His work was recognized by The Prize Corvin-Chain in 1930. 

He not elected himself at the elections of 1926.Economic University delegated him to Upper-House of Parlaiament. He stayed member of reorganized Upper-House from 1927 untol 1938 as delegate of University.                                

            

  

 

    

  

      

         

    

     

 

  

      

     

 

  

    


 


  

 


 



  

  

 

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