Üdvözlünk Bájoson

Hungary in a Guide 



Conquest of Hungary

The Hungarian language 

Kingdom of Hungary(1000-1301)

István The Saint The First and Heredity 

Geography of Hungary

Everyday life in Middle-Ages

Knights and knightly orders 

Knights in Middle-Ages

History of Arms of Ancestors and Early Hungary  


Hungary in a  Guide aims to present Hungary this beautiful and important country from arrival of Ancestors to Modern Hungary.We will go back until Antique Age, presenting Pannonia and Aquincum also. 

I. Conquest of Hungary and Settling down 

Migration of Nations at the end of 9th century 

Conquest of Hungary means the migration of Hungarian People from Etelköz to Carpathian Basin. The late migration has fastened the economic and social progress of people and has founded the development of feodal state. The image of Hungarian Conquest is very epic. Before year 1200 Anonymus has visioned and has written this epic period. Prince Árpád has lead the occupation and after minor battles he and his Princes and corps have occupied Hungary. The fact concerning Conquest of Hungary is that around years 1200 Anonymus has had no eye-witness who could have describe the process of Conquest and Occupation of Hungarian Territories. He knew Regino's descriptions around years 900.Oesta Illungaroruma is a Romantic Description concerning Heroic Facts of Ancestors. Anonymus has known about Conquest of Hungary from Latin Writers work. Conquest of Hungary have had been the break in of people and populations of Euro-Asia. 

Conquest of Hungary 

The final settlement of Hungarian Ancestors can be dated at the turn of 9 and 10th centuries.Before arrival of Hungarian Ancestors three main Empires had fought to control Carpathian Basin. These Empires were First Bulgarian Empire, East Francia and Moravia Empires. Hungarian horsemen and soldiers had occasionally helped them. They first occupied the Region called Lowlands East of River Danube and attacked and occupied Pannonia in 900. 

(Pannonia have been the Region to the West of River Danube). Hungarians have had been familiar with Eastern Regions of steppes which have become their future homelands. In time Hungarian Ancestors had crossed Carpathian Mountains following joint attack in 894 and 895 by Pechenegs and Bulgarians against them.

Hungarian Ancestors have had strenghtened their power and control over Carpathian Basin over the Battle of Brezauluspuro against Bavarians on July 4 907. They have targeted also the Byzantine Empire between 943 and 971. Hungarian Ancestors settlement have happened gradually in the Carpathian Basin and they established their Christian Monarchy. This Monarchy become The Kingdom of Hungary around Year 1000. Frist written sources have come from Byzantine authors. The earliest written source is The Source Emperor Leo The Wise Tactics. This work have been finished around 904 and recounts The War between Bulgar and Byzantine Empire of 894-896. This War have had been a direct military conflict preceeding Hungarian departure from Pontic Steppes. This event have been registered in Continuation of Chronicle by George The Monk.  Anyway the most detailed source of this Era is the Administrando Imperio(On Governing The Empire). Compilation is avalaible from Auspices of Emperor Constantine The Seventh Porphyrogenius in 951 or 952. 

Although the events concerning Conquest of Hungary can be found in Ancient Clergymen Books also. Written sources of Successor States of Carolingian Empire count facts closely related to Hungarian events. One of those books is The Annals of Fulda. Annals of Fulda is the earliest work ending in 901. Famous is The Letter of Archibishop Theotmar of Salzburg to Pope John The Ninth in 900. However it is not known that these Letters are reliable of fake sources. Let us evoque Abbot Regino's World Chronicle from Prüm from 889.Important Book is Bishop Lieutprand's Antapodosis("Retribution") from Cremona, too. It is dated around 960. Interesting and unique are the informations provided by Aventinus a 16th century historian. The infos provided by Aventinus are not known from other sources. Anyway the reliability of those sources is suspect. 

Let us evoque other sources of Conquest of Hungary. One of them is Lives of Saints which is a Slavonic Church Compilation based on eyewitness account in The War between Bulgarian and Byzantine Empire in 894-896. Around 924 have had been written Life of Saint Naum containing nearly contemporary informations on fail of Moravia caused by Hungarian invasions.The earliest copy concerning these events is from the 15th century. Also written on Hungarian events is Russian Chronicles dated around 1113.

Informations are based  on earlier Byzantine and Moravian sources "Form of Songs and Ballads". These are Hungarian Memory Sources of major events of Conquest of Hungary(C.A. Macarmey). The earliest local chronicle comes from the 11th century. During Middle-Ages this Chronicle have been several times rewritten. The 14th century Illuminated Chronicle contains texts from "Form of Songs and Ballads". 

The earliest Chronicle have been Gesto Hungarorum written before 1200.However one can find some misleading concerning early Hungarian texts. Gesto Hungarorum contains informations which are not based and confirmed by contemporenous sources. Next Chronicle dates back to 1283 and comes from Simon of Keza, Priest of Hungarian Royal Court. This Chronicle of Simon of Keza emphasizes that Hungarian People's Ancestors have been Huns, Earlier Conquestors of Carpathian Basin. 

According to these historical written sources Hungarian Conquest is the second conquest of the same territory by the same people.


The Hungarian Language

After the Conquest of Hungary and before starting the Chapter analyzingEarly Hungarian State let us giving a brief description on Hungarian language and its origins.Hungarian is a unique language. Foreign linguists Mezofanti and Sie Bowring have written glorious chronicles on Hungarian language. Professional books which have been written over the past 50 years dealing with the past 50 years dealing with the past of Hungary have made always reference to the origins of Hungarian language and to Hungarians mentioning them directly from Finno-Ugric language group.Within Finno-Ugric language group tighter bands have been supposed with Ugric language sub-branch.No or rarely contests are known concerning the linguistic relationship of Hungarian language with Finno-Ugric Group even by proponents of other language theories. Major problem is with the direct decent relationship with Finno-Ugric groups that Hungarian origins are not closely and genetically tied to their Finnish linguistic relatives. It is known that Eastern Ugrians are Mongoloids unlike most of other Finno-Ugors of Eastern Europe. Concerning anthropological researches, according to Dr. Henkey Gyula, Marc Klein doctor, Dr. Tóth Tibor and Dr. Kiszely István Hungarians are closely related to Southern Central Asian,Pamir,Western Caucasus Area Nations. There are some methods to understand and discover the origins of Hungarian language. Start to research  linguistic relations of Hungarian language like Finno-Ugric linguistic Group and Altaic Language Group. 


Kingdom of Hungary(1000-1301)

When István The Saint The First, Grand Prince of Hungarians has been crowned King, the Kingdom of Hungary have come into existence. It is very important to emphasize that István The Saint The First  have had forced central authorityand forced his Court of Kingdom and people to accept Christianity and agree to it. Although written source show the significant role of Italian and German clerics and knights in Early Hungarian State evolution. 

The evolution of Early Christian State of Hungary have had been often accompanied by Pagan uprisings and the aim of Roman Empire to expand their authority over Hungarian Kingdom. All these riots jeopardized the newborn Hungarian Christianism. István The First, Ladislaus(1077-1095) and Coloman(1095-1116) had stabilized Hungarian Empire. THese Emperors have had occupied Territories of Croatia and Dalmatia although they have retained their authorities at the same time. 

Béla The Second(1131-1141), Béla The Third(1176-1196),Andrew The Second(1205-1233) and Béla The Fourth(1235-1270) had continued to conquest Balkan Peninsula and Territories placed towards East of Carpathian Mountains. 

source:en. wikipedia.org/wiki/kingdom of Hungary

István The Saint The King and Heredity 

István The Saint has been the Founder of Hungarian State. He has had lived his life according to Early Western lifestyle and have had followed Early Western Europe. He christianized Hungary and Pagans, that way he forced Hungarian Kingdom to follow Christianism and Western Europe. He was born in 969 in Esztergom. His real name was Vajk.Father was Prince Géza, mother was Sarolt, herediting from Gyula Family in Transsylvania. The marriage of Sarolt and Géza have had meant parallelism and somehow the beginning of Christianism. Beginning of Christianism is related to fact that Sarolt's father become Christian in Byzantine Empire. THis event lead to parallelism of Eastern and Western world. The fact of Christianization had began in 972 thanks to Géza. The antecedant have had been the recognition of Prince Géza concerning the meaning of Religion Christianism. He recognized that Christianism is the religion  resulting new, established security. That is why he asked the arrival of new priests from Hereditaire Otto The First. Consequently Bruno The Monk of Saint Gallen have been appointed Bishop. Otto christianized Géza and members of Géza Kingdom also, but Géza had followed Paganism until death. 

Vajk-István The Saint-have been christianized by Vojtech, Bishop of Prague. Géza have obliged his son to marry the sister of Bavarian Hereditaire Henrique, Giselle. Although because of that fact due to arrival of German Knights giving the founds of army of István The Saint The First. 

István and Heredity 

King István has had heredited the Kingdom after the death of his father Géza in 997. The King and Kingdom have had been attacked by István brother, Koppány from Somogy County. Koppány disputed legitimacy of Hungarian Kingdom  and his brother, István legitimacy of beeing King of Hungary.Problem was focused around familial heredity. István won over Koppány in Battle of Veszprém.The King cut dead body. Some of Koppány body members have had been sent to Transsylvania, some other members hung on Esztergom, Győr, Veszprém Gates. István have been crowned in Esztergom in Year 1000 or in 1st of January 1001.The Title King come from Charles The Great, King of Frank.The Crown for István The King have come from Pope Sylvester The Second. The importance of Crown of Hungary is due to historical event of Independence under the Church of Rome. 

According to Theotmar, Pope of Merseburg, the Crown of István come from Otto. This historical fact is justified. At that time Hereditaire Otto have had worked in Rome with the Pope of Rome. Although István have had not become the vassal of Otto. Our Great King, István The Saint The First have had founded the existance of an Independent and Christian Hungary.He have had founded the pillars of Hungarian church system. He have emitted the first laws, he have emitted the first monetary system in form of silver coins. He have founded the Ancient Counties of Hungary. Due to him the Archibiscopic and Bishopry of Esztergom have been founded. "We can learn wisdom from our Saint King."  "The pillar of European Culture."These are citations of Bishop Jozip Bozanic, Bishop of Zagreb who with Erdő Péter, Bishop of Esztergom County and Bishop of Hungary, celebrated our Mass of 20th of August,Feast of Foundation of Hungarian State in Budapest in Szent István Square before the Church of Bazilika in 2016.

"István was the Gift of Providence in an Era of building the Nation."(Josip Bozanic in 2016) 

sources:szent istvan kiralyunk elete-625725 Uj Ember Magyarorszag Katolikus Hetilapja 2016 augusztus 28

Geography of Hungary

After finishing the chapter on István The Saint The First, it is important to detail the geography of Hungary. Hungary is geographically positioned as a Central-European country. Hungary is positioned in the Southern part of Central-Europe,in the bordering part of East-Alps, Carpathian Mountains and Dínár Mountains. The oceanic climate is decreased in this Basin. Continental climate is not yet powering.The Adriatic Ocean is positioned 240 kilometers from the borders of Hungary. Due to that fact rivers and plants can show climatic transition. The decreased particularities of Carpathian-Basin and the central position of the country are very favorable for the transport but not too favorable concerning the pollution of rivers. The geographical particularities of Hungarian Basin are the law oceanic geographical position and vertical positioning. 

The State of Hungary is Hungarian Republic. Its territories are 93036 square kilometers. It is a small country in Europe. Hungarian Territories form less than one percent of European Territories. Circa 33.000 square kilometers of Hungarian Territories are the main territories in Carpathian-Basin. There are some bordering territories of Hungarian Republic. These are Alföld, Kisalföld, Alpokalja, Dunántúli-dombság, Dunántúli-középhegység which is not a bordering territory and positioned in Hungary. The five other geographical locations border the frontieers of Hungarian Republic. Hungarian Borders are geographically opened and relate the country with neighboring countries. The main political meaning of European unification is the relation of Hungary and neighboring countries also. The climate of Hungary is four seasoned. Hungary is continental climated. There are no main climate differencies in Hungary because of geographical position of the country. The average temperature of Hungary is 8-11 degrees Celsius. 


Everyday life in Middle-Ages 

What is Middle-Age?Let us emphasize on historical definition of that Era. The main definition of Middle-Ages is the End of Roman Empire in 476. It is at that Era that Middle-Ages begun. The end of Middle-Ages Era is the discovery of Continent of America in 1492. Middle-Age can be defined as Middle-Ages also, because of the multitude of events and historical facts overcoming in the world at that period. Early stages of Middle-Ages show main differencies compared to late Middle-Ages periods.That means 5th and 6th centuries and Humanist Era of 15th century. The main social particularity of Middle-Ages have been the differentiation of people according to their origins. The main social classes have been villain and aristocrate. Villains have been dependent from landlords in their lives.

Aristocrates have had the most of social privilegies. Although the transition between social classes existed. It was very rare. Main example of that transition in Hungary is the life of Bakócz Tamás.Bakócz Tamás was born in villain family in 1442 but 70 years later he almost have been elected Pope and he have died as one of the most influential and important Bishop of Europe and Middle-Ages. Other social class have been the Class of Peasants. Villains and peasants have had worked lot, they payed almost all of their incomes to their landlords in form of taxes. THeir lives have had been miserable and dependent of landlords. Anyway the social situation of villains and peasants depended from country to country. Eg:Russia and Netherlands. In some countries in late Middle-Ages have developed the social class of rich peasants.Peasants and villains in Middle-Ages have been self-supporting. 

The peasants have lived mainly in their wooden built houses according to 15th century. They worked 12-15 hours and their nutrition rarely contained or missed the meat. The Middle-Ages peasants could barely support their families. 

These lands in which they have had worked and economised have had not been the peasants properties. Their landlords owned these lands. Peasants payed heavy taxes in form of money, food and work. The money form tax have had been payed two times,springtime on Saint George Day and autumn on Saint-Michael Day. The food tax have been ten percent of food income. In Hungary this tax called Nona. The tax payable to Bishops called Decima. The work tax have mean the free work(servitum) that peasants spent in landowner lands. This work-tax have been different according to countries. The landowner land was  called Allodium. The work tax in Hungary have become one day per month and one day per week at the end of Middle-Ages. Peasants payed their taxes to the King also. These taxes contained three variables. First variable was the House-tax, in Hungary the Land-tax, another was the Army-tax.(.in Hungary payable once or twice per year). Another supporting tax have had been payable allowing to housing soldiers. Other taxes were the monthly Gift-tax payable to landlord and the Grain-production tax. THe Middle-Ages peasants have payed lot of taxes and have had owned nothing. As detailed above, Middle-Ages peasants were self-supporting.Villains have hot dealt with money. Peasants used their own furnitures, simply fabricated. Their houses have had been furnished with chairs and tables. 

CHimneys are known from the 11th century. Before 11th century smoke gone out on windows. Glass window come in use in 15th and 16th centuries. Before lantern windows have ornamented houses, according to famous roman Egri Csillagok written by Gárdonyi Géza. Peasants and villains have eaten from wooden plates and drunk their drinks from wooden goblets. Glass blow and porcelain blow plates  and household products have had come in  Modern Age. In  Middle Ages peasant families lot of children were born.The average number have been 6-8 children. Lot of children have had died in their early ages. Grandmothers, grandfathers have lived in their children and grandchildren family. Children of age 14 and 15 years old have had been treaited adults. Adolescents of age 17-18 have already married and in 20 years of age they have become parents. At the age of 40 they become grandparents. Unfortunately above 35 years old lot of people have shown signs of oldness. Education of children of peasants and villains of Middle-Ages have had been neglected. Children had no clothes fit to them, they worn their parents clothes. THeir parents brought them to public torture events and they have seen lot of pulblic and dead punishment  executions. Novices of priests and clergymen have learnt reading and writing. VIllains and peasants and children have not completed even elementary school nor other education. They have been taught reading and writing by their parents. Parents have taught their children the tax-paying process, the work of sewing. Middle-Ages peasants life have had been influenced by climatic conditions because of grain and food production,by landlords from who they depended and by the Church. 

THe Middle-Ages Church could influence people life and direct them.Landlord have had decision concerning tax-paying and punishment of his villains. VIllains had to visit church regularly and they known Church Dogms. Main roles of Church have been baptism, marrying and funerals. Although Middle-Ages people have had believed Church Dogms and they were afraid of God punishment. Church role have been also the nursing. THe Church have educated people. Documentations of Middle-Ages are based on theological documents. Church animated leisure feasts and activities also. Leisure in Middle-Ages have had been related to Bible. 

Let us point out another social couche of Middle-Ages. THis is the couche of civils. They formed small part of Middle-Ages society. Civils have had not depended from landlords. They lived in Middle-Ages cities. We mean by civils the merchants, artisans, money borrowers, ship-builders. Number of civils have grown at the end of Middle-Ages in North-Italy, Flandre, England, in certain parts of France and in certain part of Holy Roman Empire. In Eastern Europe civils formed the social minorities, mainly in Russia and Poland. THis fact can be highlighted in 19th century. Middle-Ages city streets have not been cleaned and city buildings were not constructed.Walls protected these cities against noble ennemies and robbers. As a consequence due to lack of canalisation, epidemies killed people. City cleaning process was the garbage eating by pigs. THe main population of prostitutes, beggars and rubbers filled Middle-Ages cities. Middle-Ages biggest cities were Paris and Venice with approximately   150.000 inhabitants.

Clericals have enjoyed same privilegies like nobles. Although in reality the real life of clericals have been far of real clerical life. Anyway the monks lived their life devoted to Holy God. Clericals have been rich, they have built up their carrier and lived similar life as nobles. At that times society have been strictly hierarchised. Hierarchy was evident.At the bottom of the system come novices, at the higher level (mass) priests, then leaders of Cathedrales, Deans, Bishops, Archibishops and Cardinals.Bishops have had the richness and power of counts. Archibishops power have been similar to princes power.  In regard of nobles, the main part of Middle-Ages have had been influenced by knight-life.Nobles lived their lives in strong castles protected by their armies, having their own servants and craftsmen.Nobles castles have had been rounded by their lands, peasants and villages. Landlords have spent their times mainly fighting in Middle-Ages wars and in peaceful times they participated in tournaments.In case they were not hereditaires in their families, nobles become rubber-knights. Nobles have been related to king and to each other by Rule of Feodalism.In case vassals ordered nobles have gone in war with their vassals. Nobles tried to increase their lands serving their kings and with favorable marriages in regard of their sons and daughters. Parents decided marriages of their children. THey have decided concerning lands of both families. Nobles clothes were full of decorations, they circulated on horse back and owned arms. Peasants dressed very simply. Peasants had a clothe for everyday wearing and another called feast-time clothe. In Middle-Ages societies dressing have had decided the personal  social appearance. There have been huge differencies in regard of quality and form of clothes. 

Peasants have had no horses of their own. They formed the pedestrians of these times. THose peasants having draught horse or bullock were considered rich farmers.Nobles have organized big parties for each other. Main leisure activities of Middle-Ages Era have been hunting, knight-tournaments and parties. Peasant leisure activities have had been participating in festivities, festivals, church festivals, in public executions and harvest festivals.Festival locations were King Centers in Middle-Ages. Kings have had appeared in these centers several times a year and participated in organized festivities.In these parties intrigues come in frequently. Middle-Ages Era have been an interesting Period in regard of present days. Let us study Middle-Ages!

source:harmat árpád péter:life in middle ages history blog 


Knights and knightly orders 

Knights have been main participants of Middle-Ages. Let us detail knights and knightly orders. Knights have been members of warriors of European Continent. Their Code have had been called the Code of Law "Chivalry".Other Indo-European languages call knights Chevalier(French language), Ritter(German language).THese denominations suggest the mode of transport.Since Antique times horse have meant nobility. Prestige was given to Antique warriors.


Kings of Middle-Ages were unable to pay knights services:They payed them donating them fiefs. Middle-Ages knights have become kings vassals.The incomes coming from the knights fiefs have had supported costs of their horses and equipements.

THe basic institutions of law and rules have come from that fact that landlords have been guarded by mercenaires. Mercenaires have had unique power in landlords lands.Anyway strong Middle-Ages institutions have been supported by landlords and their lands because central power have had been so week that it could not have support such a power. Vassals obligation was military service. 

Kings and landlords had powerful armies that way. THe base of these armies were formed by horse fighting warrior landlords.In late Middle-Ages in Western Europe. These horse fighting warriors have been known as military knights.Later on chivalriousness have developed. Chivalriousness meant a form of conducting. It was a from of conducting between the same social couches, not for peasants and commons. Respect and honour obliged nobles and landlords conduct in peaceful times and in wars also.

Knights having their fiefs have had got power in Middle-Ages societies. Aristocracy and noblety have had been based on knights heroic facts in wars. Later on it has changed and heritance weighed. Military facts have counted less. In the beginning of Middle-Ages Era beeing knight meant the horse warriror fighting. After that beginning era knights have outreached compared to civil and church couches of Middle-Ages society. Their equipement, meaning powerful horses, brilliant armours, and their arms causing winning and giving death to their ennemies become symbols of Middle-Ages.

Since the 12th century beeing knight have become knight-life a form of living and with their own rules established. 

These rules follow:

-helping women and unprotected people 

-fighting against unjustice and villains 


-defending Church 

In real life knights life have had not been so romantic. Knights not respected and followed these rules depending on their behalf.In some cases when knights befhalf wanted conflicts have became between nobles or fighting to acquire lands.An example is the conflict between Nagy Károly(Charles The Great) grandsons. Middle-Ages Era have had been full of inner conflicts, causing difficulties to poor, peasant and agricultural worker populations. 

Late Middle-Ages Era have had given to the world Orders of Knighthood. These associations have been founded by kings.Orders of knighthood had been composed of best knights, giving oath to each other and to king. Entering an order of knighthood meant great respect and the newly entered knight have became very known of the actual kingdom.Some of these orders are existing ones until present days. 

The Main Order founded was the Order of Golden Silk founded by Philipp of Burgundia(Philipp The Good) which he have founded in 1430. This Order have had been the richest one of Middle-Ages Europe. The Order Saint-Michael(Szent Mihály Rend) aim was to order nobilities of the country.Order Saint-Michael have had been founded by Louis The Eleventh.Aim of banishing Saracers from Spain was the main goal of Orders of Alcantara, Calatravia and Santiago. 

How anyone could become knight?Children of 7-8 years of age begun their knight careers as pages. Landlords domestic women have elevated pages and pages learnt to handle arms and equitation. At the age of 14 years old they have became users of arms and their training have had continued by a knight. In their training periods pages were obliged to serve their trainer knight. Pages or trainees have had obligatory tasks. Main tasks have been cleaning of armours, and arms, clothing of their trainer knight, survel knight and knight guard also. Trainee have had to serve his Master, the trainer knight. Main service meant to serve him in knight tournaments and in wars and fightings. Pages  had for task to bring knight horse for change, or treat wounds of knight. Another task was to help escape his Master Knight from fightings and wars. Trainee have had to sercure the funeral of his Master in case he died in fightings. When trainees have had fought in wars and fightings, ex-trainees escaped from fightings with pages and trainees. 

THe warriors(ex-trainees)have searched fighting with ennemies of same or higher rank. Although users of arms, trainees got power and heroism fighting down knights of armies and ennemies.Trainees have learnt reading,  they have not been able writing.They known dancing, singing and have had musical knowledge to a certain level. Trainees became knights from the age of 21. Knights of higher rank have had initiated trainees to become knights.The main ceremony was simple. The person waiting for initiation have been striked with a flat of a sword. After this procedure he got his swordbelt.In late Middle-Ages Church have had initiated knights also.Trainees waiting fro initiation procedure have taken their bath, cut their hair, and have prayed all night. Next morning they got symbols of knight, sword and spur. 

Becoming knight have had been an opened way to riches of Middle-Ages. Conditions were having fief or fiefs or having decent income. Bishops and landlords have supported knights and knight-trainees have been initiated knights by these persons.Main part of knight-life was knight tournament. These tournaments meant a sort of sport between knight.s.This activity have had begun in 10th century.Bishop Ince The Second and Council of Literan have resisted to their activity because lot of blessings and death happened during these events. Although knight-tournaments flourished and made organic part of Middle-Ages eras.When introduced knight-tournaments were simple but time passed they have became more sophisticated. Knoght-tournaments have had penetrated as important social events resulting the arrival of lords and landlords from foreign countries.Knight-tournaments fights have happened in special fighting spaces. Viewers and guests have been placed on tribunes.Fighters were placed in pavillions. There have been simple fights but team fights also. As time passed, the "lance breaking" meaning to push the adversaire to the ground have became the main spectacle.Knight-tournaments have had been organized for prizes.Honour and glory and honour, fanship, love of women were important for knights. To gain honour, glory and love of women fighters wanted to die.From the 13th century dead cases horrified Pope and landlords. One example is death of 60 fighters in Cologne Tournament in 1240.Church forced knights to fight in cruisades not in tournaments. Pression have had been so daunting that rules of tournaments have had changed. Although changes occured, death cases have happened later also. The fight declaration have meant friendly fighting but in case of hatress fighters killed each other. Losers could be captured and liberated in change of payment. Payment meant armours, horses and arms. Tournaments results have had been published and documented by herolds. Knights originating from lower social couches could earn higher incomes from their tournament prizes.They got love of women that way. Military orders have also existed in Middle-Ages. The first military order have been The Order of Charisters. Order of Charisters have been founded in 1118 to protect Saint Sir and Pilgrims. Their symbol have been The White Cross and they pledged for poverty, virginity and loyalty. Knights of Order of Charisters have had been the bravest knights of their times. THey fought in cruisades. 

source:gombos zsolt a kozepkor lovagjai(knights of middle-ages)


History of Arms of Ancestors and Early Hungary 

Next chapter highlights  The History of Arms of Ancestors and Arm History in Early Hungary. Military and arm history researches  were always in center of interest from the part of researchers and from public part. THese researches are valuable to Hungarians of 9th and 10th centuries, too.Example is the fight of Conquest of Hungarian Territories. Arms of Early Hungarians in the 9th and 10th centuries have had been bow and axe. These two arms were disponible to civil population also.People have had horses and their kits. Important to point out the military organization and tactics of Hungarian Conquestors. Judgement of Hungarian Ancestors is very negative in foreign countries, because of lot of devastations. The fact of identifying Early Hungarians as Huns caused lot of misunderstandings also. Chronicles of Germany from the 12th century given choice between Huns and Hungarians. Some researchers pointed out that contemporary scientists of Italy and Belgium confused destroys of Huns and Hungarians. They confused Huns and Hungarians with Vikings and Saracenes and thought that some destroys have had been caused by Early Hungarians.

source:Book Honfoglalók Fegyverben(Conquestors in Arms) edited by Publishing House Helikon(Helikon Kiadó) Budapest. 

Hungarian Conquests cannot be compared to Arabic Conquests in between 732 and 735. They are not comparable to adventures of Early Normann populations either. These adventures have had finished by settling down and establishing states.Another aspects of Arab and Norman adventures have had been invasion of territories. Important part is the historical image of conquests in Western historical science in the 19th century. Main adventures were the adventures lead by German people because of elevated numbers of these conquests. Modern historical researches point out War of Loch,supported by Ceremony of Bishop of Augsburg Ulrich. German historical researches question some facts. These are the historical identity of Eastern-Frank people, foundation of Holy-Roman Empire in 962, Crowning of Otto The First. The expression "War of Loch"coming from the 19th century. The topic War of Loch was very popular between 1900-1918 because of populartiy of military history. Festivities were held in Königsbrunn to the Memorial of 900th Anniversary of War of Loch in 1855. The Church of Memory remembering to victory of War of Loch was built three years since the 900th Anniversary of that War. War of Loch is related in history to the historical return of Ostmark. It was main until the Second World War and National Socialism. 

In our times, full of migration and terrorism, a very important historical data and reference is the year 1955.West-Germany have had declared that year The Memory of Saint Ulrich. Chancelor Konrad Adenauer told in his Memorial Speech that values of Western Europe and Christianism are main values. These values are endangered in 21st century by islamic terrorism, by modern European Union, by socialist liberal politicans of Hungary and illegal immigrants towards Europe. Hungarian Prime Minister Orbán Viktor defends these values of Europe and of the world. West-German Adenauer thought that Pagan wars and Cold War have had parallelisms.

Adenauer told that 20th century Bolsevism have been the same as Pagan Movements. Referring to source works, this point of view terminated by Hungarian Revolution of 1956. According to Hungarian historical memory judgements  Hungarian Conquests have had been positive events.However spiritual and other sensitivities blow up these historical and scientific results. According to destroying impacts of Hungarian Adventures and Conquests, Western horrification have identified these adventures as some "divine judgement."Barbarism of Early Hungarian Conquestors is highlighted in works of 18th century historian August Ludwig Schlozer of Göttinga. However Hungarian historian Virág Benedek tells the opposite in his scientific  works. In years 1800 succesful wars supported and brightened heroism of conquests of Ancestors. The term "adventures" was implemented in 1842 by Horváth Mihály and in 1869 by SZabó Károly.Foreign languages translate the word  "kalandozás" robbery conquest. 

At the end of 19th century the point of view on Hungarian Ancestors have became more pointed and critical, thanks to Pauler Gyula and Marcali Henrik.

In 1945, 1955 and 1968 Bogyay Tamás and Vajai Szabolcs historians of Socialist Era changed historical aspect in regard of Hungarian Ancestors. The image of Early Hungarians became more sophisticated in these works. Anyway the image concerning historical aspect is more pointed and critical. Historians of Slav Countries and Roumania point on barbarism of Early Hungarian Conquestors. Important is the Work of Austrian historian Hermann Meynert, edited in 1876.The content of his book is ancient military affairs in Hungary. Meynert recognized military virtue of Hungarian Ancestors.It have been the result of Conciliation between Austria and Hungary in 1867.Meynert also recognized tactics in Hungary. Salamon Ferenc gave an answer to Meynert. He saw Ancestors arms and tactics from a creative point of view. Source of work of Salamon Ferenc was THe Work of Taktika written by Leo The Wise. (Tactics from Leo The Wise). Main oppinions, basic conclusions come from that source work. Salamon work was creative and highly recognized by very prestigious Ipolyi Arnold in 1879. 

The military conquests of Hungarian Ancestors have been an art and virtue which will never pass  and which is part of Hungarian memory. THe Hungarian horse fighting army corpses of 19th century has continued the military costumes of horse fighting Ancestors.Researchers registered military facts of that century. Gyomlay Gyula questioned earlier historical facts. Gyomlay Gyula searched the contexts of Taktika. He was a researcher of Work of Sztrategikon also written by Emperor Byzantine Maurikiosz.That way Gyomlay questioned scientific facts of Hungarian military history of years of 1870 and 1900. Anyway the prestigious Darkó Jenő strenghtened the vision of Bölcs Leó(Leo The Wise) wiritten in Taktika(Tactics). Darkó tried to prove the veryfiing facts of Tactics in 1914 in his academic speech. His scientific oppinion passed.Darkó researches were based on more archeological findings.THe word "páncél"(armour) have been translated again. Archeologists have not found armours in tombs. Consequently the word  páncél(armour) have been translated vért(armour, cuirass).Another translation was testhez simuló bőrvért(smooth leader cuirass).These historical translations have influenced researches of Moravcsik Gyula who wrote the new historical translation.

Military wear of a Hungarian soldier in 10th century sources and historical findings describe only the arms and belts in detail of Hungarian fighters. THere are no historical sources of military clothes of our Ancestors. Historians do not know differencies between military wearing and everyday clothes and wearing of funerals. Archeologists have not found rests of armours in discovered ancient graves.Early sketches and drawings show Hungarian fighters in latticed corps-wear. THis wearing could be originated from Byzantines.These may be leather in cuirasses in textile. Later descriptions highlight wearings protecting armours and wear in several couches made from leather materials.The wearing above  have been the wearing of Ancient Hungarian Archers also.Let us emphasize the helmet of Ancient Hungarian Conquestors. These have been leather material helmets, covering crane and ears.Western historical descriptions describe the leather helmet of fighters. The next important topic is THe Topic On Sources of Fighting Tactics of Anceint Hungarians by Leo THe Wise and Regino. There are two ancient sources concerning appearance of Ancient Hungarians. These sources detail the fighting of our Ancestors. Authors of these Sources are Leo The Wise Emperor Byzantine(886-912) and Regino Abbey of Prüm. These descriptions have had been written basing on old or elder sources. The old soruces content have been some Eastern Populations descriptions.The Leo The Wise Description is a copy of Sztrategikon. Sztrategikon is the Soruce Work of Maurikiosz describing Avars and Türks.

Texts of Leo THe Wise (Bölcs Leó) and Regino Abbey of Prüm given doubt amongst searchers. The oppinion leader concerning results was Moravcsik Gyula declaring his scientific oppinion in 1951.Leo The Wise and Regino have had thought and have had believed that Turks and Hungarians have had been identic. The two armements have shown lot of same appearances. Pointing out Western Türks written and pictured sources support the descriptions of Sztrategikon concerning their armement.Main arms have been bow and lance. There are no contradictions in Avar researches, based on Byzantine and other resources.Ancient Bolgar researches are paralleled with Hungarian research results. According to newest researches archeologists found twenty-four relics of armours in thirteen graves.There is a helmet also between the found relics. Main arms are identic ones and they show similar forms of stilistic.These stilistics are identic ones to relics found in Carpathian- Basin.

The description of Regino Abbey of Prüm about the warrior techniques of Ancient Hungarian Conquestors is the same of the Part of Exodia Scythica,Work of Justinus written in 7th century. Exodia Scythica is based on Description of Historical Writer Pompeius Trogus of Ancient Roman Empire. Main facts are that Pompeius Trogus and Justinus have had written about Parthousians in 7th century.Regino Abbey of Prüm thought to identify Ancient Hungarians and Parthousians in 10th century.He have had  supposed that warrior costums or techniques of Hungarians and Parthousians have had been identic.Difference between the two historical descriptions can be pointed in horse fighting soldiers armory detailing texts.Difference can be pointed in Justinus Text but not in Regino Text.Regino not described armours of Scythians nor golden helmets.Another Historical Document found is the Document of Anonymus describing Scythians the Ancestors of Ancient Hungarians.Anonymus detailed vanities of Early Hungarians. THey have been hard fighters, they have been the best archers of the world, they worn helmets, they have been quick and very good horse riders.

Historians agree that armory and warriror techniques of some ancient populations have had been identic to Ancient Hungarians. Important to analyze the historical parallelisms of fighting of populations and steppes.In wars of steppes in early times life of fighters and staylng alive have had been crucial.War ethic have weighed a bit.Consequently soldiers evited face to face battles. Although weakness of armory have influenced them also. Steppic wars,the goals of these wars and ways of steppic wars have had not fitted Western-European norms. Leaders of Early Middle-Ages wars have had been idealized. 

Citations from Nurhacsi Founder of Empire of Mandzsa:"In peaceful times honor is the most important value althought in war ruses tactics causing not suffrance nor misery or destitution to soldiers."Based on historical resources the main destitutions telling that soldiers of steppes have been horse fighters and not ground fighters are incorrect and mislead historians and researchers.In Nomad wars of 9th century the main arm have had been the bow, although in face to face fightings axe, sabre and sword came in. These arms have had fit to horse back fighting.Shields of Nomads were small and protected well early Nomad soldiers  in fightings.Differencies have had been established concerning poor and rich steppic populations. Point of views  have had been access of raw materials of their arms,access of their arms of good quality, access of techniques of war. 

We know also similarities. Such similarities were horse ridign style, complexity of bow creation and stirrup use.THese similiarities  have also come in the steppic zones. Similarity of these materials have resulted the fact which Hungarian Orientalist U.Kőhalmi Katalin denoted:"According to Conquestors arms and horse armory they cannot denote ethnic relations or closer relations."In later centuries Mongol fighters of Army of Dsinghis Khan have been popular.Dsinghis Khan and his Army have had unified one of the most important Empire in 13th century. Contemporary historical science highlights  armory of Mongol warriors,reasons of their conquests and failures which result final denotes for historians.Western ennemies of Hungarians have had been Bavarians or Saxons. Another one was the Italian Empire.Skillful Hungarian fighters could deceit their ennemies. Hungarian warrior tactics have had been unknown to ennemies. We know that Hungarian fighters have had avoided face to face battles against their ennemies. Suprising historical facts are the armories of Karoling or Post-Karoling armies. These arms are hurl-pikes and bows. Another suprising fact was the ground based particularity. Another supported arms have had been shields, lances and swords.Popularity of Karoling Armies have had spreaded in Scandinavian countries and in Byzantine Territories. THey have also been known in England and in Duchesse of Saxon, even in 11th century. THe horse riding army of Arab Countries originated from the 8th century have had been the beginning of changes of war history of Early Middle-Ages Era. These changes resulted the growing number of horse back armies of Frank Nation.Beginning of Feodalism  have had influences according to these historical facts.According to Saxons, Hungarian pressure have had main influence.

Reforms of King Madarász Henrik(Henry Madarász 919-936) resulted some reformations of Army of Saxons and changes to horse fighting army. In Western armies not only the shields have had main influence but horse fighting techniques also. Such an exemple is Case of Merseburg in 933.Horse back armies of Saxons had very fine and precise bow equipement.

Exceptional historical event was the War Tournament or Knight Tournament of Verdun in 842. In presence of Kings of Karolings fighters and knights have had practiced complicated horse back or horse riding manoeuvres. Basing to Hungarian historical researches these horse back manoeuvres have had been unknown to Western European war practices.Let us give Reginos words:"Hungarian war tactics are more dangerous,they are more unknown to other populations."  The main difference between Hungarian and Brit war tactics have had been use of bow and hurl-pike.In war history Brit mean Bretons. Another notable event was War of Juvandeili in 851.In this War Hungarian Armies have had broken down and won Kopasz Károly resistance(Charles The BOld) King of Frank Army.

Let us detail the Topic of Western Horse Armory in 9th and 10th centuries. The armour equipped Western European horse armory have been the best arm of Frank States. THis armory was very costly but important because of threats and wars of Normans, Hungarians, Arabs. Western equipement, meaning horse, lance, sword, shield, warrior knife, casquet, wire-rope, have had been equal to the price of 40 cattles. Main and most valuable details of this equipement were horse and lance. Casquet and sword have had been also valuable. Knights were not existed at that period.Historical resources name them as "milles"(soldiers) or  "loricatus"(armoured).In Western Europe they were symbols of the real soldier.Armoured armies have been created by rich civils and church-men.Armoured armies have had been accorded to incomes of lands of riches. 

Western fighters with their horses had shown real strength of that period.German historians re-evaluated Henry Madarász reforms. Horse fighting warriors existed in the first part of the 10th century at Saxons.In Frank Armies there have been horse fighting soldiers in 9th century already. Reforms of Henry Madarász changed track and fields horse fighters to heavy horse fighters. Heavy horse fighters have shown great tactical capability in wars. They counted 50-100 fighting individuals.  Heavy-weight armory have had its real value and was rare. Heavy-weight horse armory have been "lighter" then the later armies of European Continent. German warriors in territories of Middle-Ages Germany have had fought stepping down from their horses.Successes of Ancestors in Middle-Ages wars cannot only be defined because of positive elements. Main reasons of successes have had been right logistic considerations also. Other considerations were skillful movements, right tactics, etc. 11th and 12th centuries have brought warrior successes of Holy Roman Empire. Emperors of Holy Roman Empire have had demonstrated their armies of 3.000 horse fighters and ground based fighters.THese Holy Roman Armies have had been the most competitive armies in Central European Region. THese armies come from before the reignance of Otto of Saxon Empire(962).Era of main armies have had been broken down. This problem have been crucial due to reason of Hungarian Ancestors. They have come and have had disappeared. 

In Karoling Era military service obligation have been strictly regulated. Anyway Karoling military service and army recruited soldiers were useless against skillful Hungarian Ancestors. THat way defending tasks should have been completed by skillful, professional soldiers. In case Hungarian ennemi should have fighting against Karoling soldiers in Middle-Ages castles and cities, some regions should have been undefended.War tactics of Ancient  Hungarian Armies have been the fact of avoiding battles against regional armies. In Byzantine Territories of 9th and 10th centuries Kleiszura Armies have completed defending tasks. Kleiszura Armies were horse and ground based armies. Next step have had been the recruitement of Themas. Themas have had been soldiers of Byzantine Territories. Tagmata  the main Emperor Army have managed serious wars. Heavily armed Tagmata have composed Byzantine Emperor  Army  and Guard. Within Tagmata Middle-Ages historians discerne for example "athamatoi"(legendary) heavily armoured horse fighting army also. Their armours have been the best of their times but equipement costed heavily.

Byzantine Army have counted several soldiers of several countries. These nations have been Grece, Armenia, Slav countries, Georgia and Christianized Arabs. Emperors guards also counted Russin, Scandinavian, Khazarian, Turkish and Hungarian mercenaires.Byzantine Army missed some knowledge of war engineering. These knowledges were fighting techniques, application of hurl-machines, red firework construction of castles and castle-fields. Byzantine Capital have had such a defense by its castles. Fleet of Byzantine have been descent of Late Roman Empire. Byzantine Fleet have had been strong and alarming  because of use of red firework. Logistic support have been an important fact in Byzantine Army. 

Such an important logistic aid have helped the support of arms of fighting units. Byzantine Army have had important medical and healthcare background. Let us highlight the importance of Early Byzantine Manuals, the basic sources of Early Middle-Ages War History.Early Byzantine Manuals have been written in 9th and 10th centuries by Byzantine Emperors to their main descents or hereditaires and to top soldiers of Byzantine Millitary Leaders. Byzantine Manuals have had contained military experiences and the summarizing of Byzantine Emperors. These books(main historical sources) detail the Early Middle-Ages Byzantine Army, the new military skills necessary taken from ennemies.Ennemies were Franks, Slavs, Arabs and Hungarians denominated Turks at that historical period. At the same occasion Byzantine Manuals details were tactics and skills of Byzantine ennemies,too. History and military history denotes Hungarian mercenaires within Byzantine Army. At that Era of Dynasty of Makedons 84 Turks have been mercenaires in Emperor Army. That fact have had been denoted in source works coming from that Era from Constantinople.When Konstantin The Seventh have governed Byzantine Empire the source work composed of this period "Ceremonies of Byzantine Empire" counts that historical fact.These 84 Hungarian soldiers were the fighters sent to Italy.At that Historical Period Emperor Lakapenos had governed Byzantine Empire.In Period of Leo The Wise(Bölcs Leó), Master Philoteos, Master of Military and Sword Ceremonies of Emperor have also counted 84 Turk soldiers. Historians and researchers do not agree concerning the fact that these mercenaires have been detented or voluntary soldiers. Another source is Psalm Khludov Part of Collection of Historical Museum of Moscow.It is that Psalm figuring a Hungarian mercenaire in Byzantine Army.  Psalm Khludov originates from 9th century from the capital. One of the paintings figures out solder with his sabre. This source can be compared to the 10th century Archeological Remains from Hungary and to Ancient East European Remains. Hungarian mercenaires have done their military service in Guard of Emperor Byzantine hetareia. THere have been two units of this Guard where Hungarians served.These Hungarians have done their military service with steppic Turks and Khazarian soldiers. Source of these facts have been Harun ibn Jahja Geographer Arab.He have had seen Turk and Khazarian Guards in Emperor Palace and in military ceremonies.They have been wearing brestplate both of them according to Jahja. Bishop Lieutprand have recited about fighters who have been recruited to Emperor Guard. These were Hungarians captivated. They have had been nicely clothed. All of this happened in 968. The colour of coat of soldiers of hetareia  was the white, but descriptions recite the discernement between red, blue, white and green. According to numbers of Conquestors Armies there are no reliable sources.The number of horse fighting Hungarians have been circa 20.000 based to sources of Dhjani from Buhara who lived in 9th century. This source is a copy which have had been translated by Ibn Ruszta and Gardizi and it have had been copied.As it have had been counted at that Era, this number agreed to steppic numerical system of ten, hundred, thousand, ten-thousand.In Hungarian language it was "tömény"(concentrated).In modern Hungarian language the word "teméntelen"and "töménytelen'(innumerable, countless) come from that steppic period.

The 20.000 seems huge compared to Muslim sources of steppic era. Hungary have had been serious "Steppic Empire."As Purpleborned Constantin(Bíborbanszületett Konstantin) recited, Hungarian Conquestors defended their external frontieers unified. Sign of ordering general recruitement was the fact of bringing the famous bloody sword around the country. This ceremony occurred when danger increased. Sword have had been replaced sometimes by a bloody arrow.

Hungarian Ancestors have known the numerical system.Their organization of units have had been organized by the numerical system of ten.The word  "töménytelen"is the proof of this historical fact. Real sources concerning this numerical organization of units come from the Era of Counties of Hungarian Kingdoms.In regions where units have been organized such a way, the military service regulations have had been organized that way also.According to Description of Bishop Otto of Freisingen(Freisingi Ottó Püspök) in 12th century villains have had sent their eith or tenth comrades to war when they were seven or nine. In War of Italy in 899 less Hungarian fighters fighted. According to King Berengár only 5.000 Hungarian soldiers have participated. This Unit of 5.000 soldiers seemed huge one, because at that Middle-Ages Era fighting units of 3.500 soldiers have had been sent to wars. Ancient datas prove that the basic corps of Byzantine Army have had counted 3-500 soldiers sent to wars. Ancient datas prove that the basic corps of Byzantine Army have had counted 3-500 fighting soldiers or the number of German Mercenaires have counted this number of soldiers in War of Lerch-Field. According to Pauler Gyula, researcher of Middle-Ages, the Unit of Hungarian County Battallion have counted 300 to 400 soldiers.Consequence is that Ancient Hungarian Units were small ones.In 960 when Emperor Byzantine have captured a conquesting fighting unit of Hungary in Region of Balkan,they counted only 40 persons.

Next topic is the topic about the horses of Hungarian Ancestors. "They circulate on horse back, they think on horse back, they stand and discuss on horse back."(Regino Bishop of Prüm). Main horse of Hungarian Ancestors was the type Tarpán originating from Western Steppes. These horses have not been tall, they had short legs. They have been accomodated to cold circumstances. Thus they could have run larger distances. Hungraian Ancestors have had been accompanyied by lot of own horses. They have been saddled and pack-horses.

Stories of Saint-Gallen Ekkerhardt have been originated in 10th century. "Hungarian Army have not conquested in mass."This citation poses the question of war manoeuvres on Hungarian Conquestors. There are no or less sources on these questions for contemporary researchers.Exception is one source work, Golden Fields from al-Maszúdi which Work is generally recognized amongst searchers.In this al-Maszúdi Work topic is the Ancient Hungarian War Tactics in 10th century. According to al-Maszúdi the populations living in North compared to territories from the Black Sea-there are citations of four of these populations,Turks in which al-Maszúdi have comprised Ancient Hungarians of Carpathian Basin who also have fought against Byzantine Empire.All of these events have happened in 932 and Romanosz Lakapénosz The First have sent his huge Army the Byzantine Army against them.This Army counted Christianized Arabs also.Romanosz Lakapénosz The First reigned between 920-944. Geographer Arab al-Maszúdi have had described this War as a face-to-face War. Hungarian horse archers have had shown skills in war tactics and manoeuvres.

al-Maszúdi descriptions are the same as Anonymus Byzantinos descriptions  or advices from 9th century,concerning fightings against horseback soldiers. According to Anonymus Byzantinos in his War Tactics Descriptions,he thought that the center of the army have had been the heavy armoured units of archers and ground based soldiers.Anonymus Byzantinos have described that in the beginning of wars, a smaller horse back unit must begin the war. As an answer Byzantine Army must run aside.After that manoeuvre the ennemi arrowing them. 

Byzantinos have had also detailed his descriptions. Arrowing of Byzantinos Ennemi comes from ground based Hungarian Army Units. First raws arrow legs of horses. Back raws arrowing to the sky. This way falling arrows hurt the ennemy.At that statement of fightings Byzantine soldiers take their lances and attack the horseback soldiers of the ennemi. Descriptions of Sztrategikon from the beginning of 7th century contain manoeuvres of horse riding of Byzantine Army. These manoeuvres have had been taken or can be related to steppic populations. One of these tactics are the "Manoeuvre of Alán."  

Byzantine Army have had taken the defensor(defending) and cursor(attacking) system and the division of horseback army units from Aláns.According to Manoeuvres of Alán, defensor units take their places in one raw. THus cursor units have large and distant places. THese defensor and cursor units have been bow equipped in Byzantine Army.Cursors have retired to these large and distant places after first attack.After that they begun their attacks with defensors.Another solution have been to make a round in their defensive places and attack the units of their ennemy in these distant places. This method have had been The Petscheneg-Hungarian Method.  The Petscheneg-Hungarian Method can be hardly reconstructed based on early historical sources. Main tactics have been repeated attacks of bow units of Army and the vacillation of ennemy. al-Maszúdi have known the fights against Byzantine Army from Muslim commercants negotiating between fighting units. Concerning wars of Asiatic steppic regions, there are vast sources for contemporary researchers. 

Muslim Califs who spreaded their power in 7th century after conquesting Persia, have fighted against Turks.Turks in question have had populated Central-Asia until Turks have not taken Islamic Region. Carahanid State was the State of Islamic Populations of Turkish Language. Carahanid editor Mahmúd Kashgan have edited The Book of Turkish Language in 11th century. The original title of Book of Turkish Language is Divánu lugáti t'-turk.

The Book of Turkish Language citates the manoeuvres of Army of Carahid. Main manoeuvre have been Simulated Retiring(ülker cserig). Another manoeuvre have been the "bögürle."Bögürle aim was the attack of ennemy behind their units. 11th century Science Giving Hapiness(Kutadgu Billig) the Book edited by Hadzsib Balaszagúni describes the main character of the ideal General.THe Book of Language Türk contents advices concerning batallions and wars.These advices remain to the Epic Winning of War of Brenta in 899.Concerning lances of Hungarian Conquestors, Kovács László(Leslie Kovács)had resumed citations.In Latin sources hurl-lance can be translated as Spiculum.Spiculum have had been one of the main arms in Ancient Hungarian Armory. However it is difficult paralleling archeological rests and research datas. Bölcs Leó(Leo The Wise) have had written these words:"Most of them have two types of arms.They bring wooden on their shoulders, they bring bows in their hands. When need is, they use one or the other." 

Basing on written and painted sources of early era lance had been widely used. Furúszijjá the horse based martial art coming from Muslims have had been widespread also amongst Hungarians.Its traditions going back to the racines of 9th century. THese martial techniques and fighting manoeuvres have had been acquired mainly by professional fighters.

Interesting are the rests of rocks of Firúzabád. THese pictures show lance fightings and wrestling.These facts emphasize and give interest to the Branch of Middle-Ages certificate researches in Hungarian Histoiical Science. These Middle-Age Documents are proofs for the use of lances in early war history from one part. From another part they are evidencies of heroic epics of steppic period. In case of lance fightings of Prince Béla with Valiant of Pomeran and fighting of Opos with Valiant Peter gives doubt that ancient steppic epics have been translated knight stories using latin words. 

Hereby let us detail the Rule of Archery in fightings. Power and arrowing distance.In Hungary home country of Reconstructed Horse-Archery, Mameluk Archery Techniques have been unknown for long time. These are techniques coming from Ancient Egypt. These teaching methods are the bases of reconstruction of arrow fightings.Mameluks having Cumanian and Circassian origins.These Slav soldiers brought from steppic regions have had been the best soldiers from 13th to 16th centuries. Mameluk soldiers stopped Mongols and they swapped away rest of crusaders from Holy Land. In case a Mameluk soldier have had been trained in equitation and archery, he gained selection to the Honour of Master of Archery.He was member of Majdán.

Tajbuga Master of Archery Mameluk from 14th century have had written his source work concerning archery. His work details archery techniques.Historians know that ground based fighters, archers must shoot their third arrow to target their first one to 70 meters. It means barely one and half seconds.Tajbuga not detailed the power of bows. Farsi fighters of 6th and 7th centuries have had arrowed quickly but had stronder bows.Arab fighters have had strong and powerful bows also.Farsi and Arab bows were useful for shorter distance shooting and having heavy arrow.s. Heavy bows have caused heavy damages. Another types of Mameluk bows have been arrows which have been short and light ones and long distance arrow.s (Tajbuga written sources).Shooting distance of these light and long distance arrows were more than 360 meters long.THese arrows have been powerful and made damages in ennemy horse fighters.

The topic of shooting distance and powerful shooting distance is an important topic of research amongst historians. They can hardly renovate these ancient facts of war history. Serious problem amongst historians is the value of damaging of an  arrow for the ancient ennemies. Even if an arrow could húrt the shields of ennemy, it could not hurt ennemies.The top of distance shooting in Early Middle-Ages was more than 500 meters. Winner have been one fighter in Dshingis Khan Army, Jiszüngge. His record was 335 ald, 502 meters. He have reached this record on competition organized after the Battle against Shah of Havárem.Date was 4th century after Christ.According to British Historical Researches in this topic,in battles the distance have been much shorter.Less than half of these shooting results.Battle shooting distance have been in average 180 to 230 meters. According to researches coming from Byzantine sources the top shooting result have had been more than 300 meters. From the descriptions of famous Farci Poet Omar Khajjim it is known that bows in this period have been different. The use of bows of 135 centimeters have been widespread. Anyway bows of 90 centimeters have been also in use with the large bows in turn of 11th and 12th centuries.Smaller bows of 72 centimeters have had been in use, too. Based on researches coming from  Ancient Mameluk book sources,ancient horse archery practices are known also. Beginners practiced in a ground of 250 meters.Advanced horse archers  have had a ground of 250 meters. Famous war element have been the nomad horse back "Shoot Parthus"which means arrowing backwards."Shoot Parthus goes back to Antiquity.Arrowing backwards meant that horse archers could have destroy their retiring ennemies when they have had retired. This arrowing could change the final result of wars and battles.This technique surprised and choqued the ennemi unused.Chronicles and picturesque descriptions described this war technique for longtime. All these attacks have been meticulously prepared. Nomad fighters have jumped their horses in gallop in first quarter.In second quarter they have prepared shooting with their bows and arrows. In third quarter they have shot. Trained fighters have had advantages in fighting. They could arrow several times in the same quarters. They shot the same number from closer distance than novices.When target points were close they shot ten arrows from one another. Best soldiers shot one arrow to left and one to right in less than 20 meters distance. Anyway the economy with arrows have had been very important.Number of arrows depended on financial situation of fighters. At the beginning of years 800 in Karoling Empire poorest soldiers(citizens) have had only 20 arrows at disposition.Central supply helped fighters and armies. Based on Sztrategikon it is known that Byzantine Army had central supply and so more than one hundred thousand "Arrows of Empire."Anyway soldiers in general have had 30-40 arrows with them.

Probably archers knowledge was different in Early Middle-Ages army. Special archer knowledge have had been taught in King Army. King's Mameluks acquired this special knowledge of archery of war.In Army of Empire of Manchuria soldiers of archery have had been trained in heavy competitions.Qualifying their competition results they have been classified. 

Next topic of this GUide is the topic of Hungarian Conquestors and archery. In Hungarian Conquestors armies the complicated reflexed bows have had main role. Ancient Hungarians appear only in some sources as horse back fighters.(Regino and al-Maszúdi descriptions). Researchers identify Ancient Hungarians as horse archers without heavy weight armory.Cause of this classification is that there are few sources based on other elements.Eg:Ground based fighting.Wrong supposition is that Hungarian bows have had been longer distanced than Western ennemies bows, mainly Byzantine Army bows. Researchers know today the fact that unknown Hungarian war tactics described in sources were known in neighboring countries and in Europe. Hungarian Conquestors winnings and heroic facts of Early 10th century can be described on Kumanian, Mameluk, Mongol historical descriptions.Archery knowledge have had come from the beginnings. Beginnings mean continous practice from early childhood. Anyway one must separate soldiers in the army practicing archery and everyday herdsmen practicing horse archery. Disciplins and order have had influenced everyday life of both of them. Practice and everyday knowledge had main importance.The non-professional herdsmen could not replace or compliment mercenaires in wars and battles concerning fights and military tasks.Mercenaires were very popular and researched in Hungary in 10th century.  They have had been highly positioned i n Early Middle-Ages Hungarian Society. Their pecuniar situation was very good. Their military knowledge was perfect also. Hungarian soldiers or fighters were good at changing arms and several fighting styles, too.Sometimes they fought in wars as horse archers or ground fighters.Hungarians used their highly developed systematic armory. They have taken these arms always with them.THis armory have had been invented for long time through early centuries. Early Hungarian archery practices and tactics were detailed in Mameluk War History Books of 14th century.There are no datas concerning arrows held in hands.László Gyula described soldiers holding their arrows in right hand, holding the arrow and bow together.The linguistic description of Hungarian word archery is very important. The Hungarian word íj(bow) have had been denoted in 1372.The word have Finno-Ugric parallels but the origins of this word are uncertain.The origin of word íj  is not related to languages, connected to Hungarian population. The origin of Hungarian word nyíl  comes from Finno-Ugric languages.

Let us detail the forms of ancient bow tightening methods. Through history there  have been several forms of tightening bows. Bow tightening have had depended concerning the mesure of bow, form of bow, strength of bow.ALong several forms there are five basic bow tightening methods. 

1. Archer takes the arrow and puts it on the bowstring. He or she tights the arrow with his or her thumbnail and forefinger. This method is applied in case of week bows, in case of short tightening mesure. THis method is widespread in Indian Cultures of South-America and in African Cultures. 

2.Developed method is the following. Archer presses the arrow, middle finger pressing the bowstring. 

3. Archer puts his arrow on the bowstring. Forefinger and middle finger press the arrow. It is widespread in Indian Cultures of North-America and South-East Asian Cultures.

4.Mediterran strenghtening with three fingers. Archer tightens bow with forefinger, middle finger and ring-finger. In some cases fingers are put under the arrow. 

5. Thumbnail tightening. This is Asian or Mongol method. Bowstring is tightened with hend in thumbnail. This method have had been used in Asiatic Steppic Regions and attached regions. 

Another bow tightening method is Szászánidiké. In this case forefinger is stretched and leans the arrow. Middle and ring-fingers are hend in.Little finger is stretched also. Historians do not know yet if it is the thumbnail or Mediterran Method. 

Historians do not know the exact bowstirng tightening methods of Ancient Hungarian Conquestors.Hungarian Ancestors have had applied thumbnail bowstring tightening. Antropological examination of rests of Hungarian Ancestors is very important and relevant. Physical burndening coming from training and physical work, the surface of burndened muscles changed.The learning process of archery for hunting and war gives good foundation for examination to antropologists.These activities have had burdened muscles and squeleton also, so anatomy and antropology are justified.Antropological rests can give relevant informations to archery activities in case  of the archery materials have had been found in grave also.It is important to find changes due to archery on rests of squeleeon. Examinations of rests of archery of Cemetery of Sárrétudvar -Hízóföld of 10th century gave very interesting results to researchers. In this cemetery there are 20 graves. In 58 graes have been found archery materials.These materials have been arrows, archery plates and other materials.Among these individuals there have been children under 14 years. The training of children can be examined, relevant muscle changes can be denoted. Excessively medical hypertropy of muscles could be examined in case of adult archers.

Some Legends of Archery coming from Early Middle-Ages are known. An example is Herb of Szent-László, Ladislaus The Saint,Szent-László Füve. THe Legend details the shot down of Vörös Konrád, Red Konrad in War of Augsburg. These legends remember to exceptional archers shots and compliments. Anyway Early Middle-Ages tournaments are not known.  

Hungarian researchers denote traditional archery tests basing to other populations descriptions. Archery tournaments, examinations have had been to train archers to war situations. In Early Middle-Ages and probably later also archers have had to have three main abilities. They have had to be precise in their shots. It is also true but abilities are lot more complex in their case. Main method have had been the step-up training of archers.THey have had learnt from step to step. In first part of their training they have had shot to close point using weak bows. As they have had progressed they have had shot to farer points using strong bows. Archers abilities have had been trained practicing more or less exercices. The speed of their shots have had increased as they progressed. There are some examples based on Ancient Mameluk and Japanese Archer Practices. Mameluk practice have had been the following:shooting from the distance of bows of 60 which meant approximately 69 meters of distance three times to a point of one diameter. Practicing strength a rope have had been tightened on half distance in height of 2.4-2.5 meters and arrow have had to pass under this rope. Those archers who passed this exercice have had enough strength. Another practice have had been shooting to 260-300 meters long using heavy warrior arrows. To pass early archer practices need have had been to use heavier arrows than today. Concerning speed of shots there is a citation:"If you want to mesure your manual abilities and speed of shot take three arrows, stand up and shoot to the arrow of 60, approximately 69 meters of distance. If you can shoot the third one, and after that shot you see passing the first arrow in moment the third passed your bow, your speed is enough."

In Japan of Middle-Ages in the well known Oyakazu Competition the archer abilities have had been mesured completing one task. The meaning of Oyakazu is lot of arrows. These competitions have had been organized in Temple Sandsusangendó at the covered terras area. The competition area have had been very narrow and small. Competitors have had shot in this very narrow and small area. Point or shot have had been counted when arrow have passed straightly and have had not stalled and passed aside more than 1.1 meter. This competition have had obliged archers to shoot precisely and to strenghten their shots. The aim of competitors have had been to shoot valid shots in 24 hours of competition. Ancient registers show superhuman efforts and competences of ancient archers. The most successful archer of Oyakazu Competition have had been Vasa Daihacsiró. Daihacsiró had shot 13053 arrows and have had 8133 valid shots.Concerning his speed of shot, it is comparable to shooting speed of 6.6 seconds in 24 hours of competition.

Archery have had and have had got main attention in Early Hungary. Bows have had been used until 16th century in Hungary. In wars against Ottoman Conquestors guns and firearms have replaced bows.

In 17th century bows have had been used sometimes for hunting. Catched Ottoman bows were ornamental objects in Lords armories. Historical memory have had forgotten bow as an arm.  Nobody remembered to the bow as an arm in early historical periods. When presenting Hungarian Conquestors bow have had not got main attention. At Heroes Square in Budapest The Seven Hungarian Chieftains are presented without their bows except one. This monument was sculpted in first part of 20th century. Historical judgement concerning bow have had changed because of archeological results. Archeological rests of bows have had ameliorated researchers judgements. László Gyula, excellent Hungarian historian and in same time fine artist, painter and graphic artist presented bow artistically also. THus he "spreaded word"    and got his scientific results popular. Hungarian Archer image is presented on diapositives in same time. Life of Hungarian Conquestors created in 1944 and Invisible Man diapositive created based on Gárdonyi Géza novel in second part of 20th century. The bow was related to Hungarian Ancestors. In 1990 popularisation of reflexed bows began. The mass production of reflexed bows started in this year. These modern bows are cheap, secure and their material is modern and updated. From that date bows have had become very popular. Anyone could use and try this sport. In the beginning of 1990's traditional archery associations became very popular and such groups have been founded frequently. Archery became a leisure sport. An example of popularity of archery is the Feast of Archery of Ópusztaszer where more than hundred archers compete at the same time.

Remarquable are Hungarian Sportmen and their International results in traditional archery. One of these people is Kassai Lajos. Kassai is very famous, internationally known horse archer.He is The "Pope" of Hungarian Horse Archer Discipline. He established this form of sport in Hungary. Nowdays his hope is to take horse archery to Olimpic Level. Recent movie was realized based on Kassai life and sport career. The title of movie is "Lovasíjász"(Horse Archer).Another World-Wide Champion of archery is Mónus József.  Mónus József is World-champion of Distance Shooting. Their sporting career will be detailed later. Ancient Hungarian Bow became Hungarian Speciality(Hungarikum) in 2012. 

Let us detail bow and history of recognizing Bow of Early Conquests. Based on historical sources there are no doubts that bow have had been the main arm of Hungarian Ancestors. The professional need to discover this arm have interested military historians of 19th and 20th centuries. Missing written resources and descriptions have turned public  attention towards archeological results. Throughout times organic materials have had been disintegrated. As consequence bow identification have had waited.  Based on researcher work of Csiki Sebestyén Károly in 1930, archeological rests of bows of Avars and Ancient Hungarians have been recognized. Csiki Sebestyén have collected bow rests of his period and have reconstructed in drawn descriptions these rests. He based his reconstructions on Modern Asiatic Bow(Mongol, Bachkirien, etc). Csiki Sebestyén researches have resulted diminition of archeological researches of bowplates. During 80 years only scientific works of B.Nagy Katalin and Révész László have main importance in this topic. Missing researching work have been supported by built construction of bows of Ancient Conquests. These built materials are the work of Fábián Gyula and Szőllösy Gábor. Nowdays archeological rests are at disposition to military historians. These rests have been discovered in 300 graves. These rests have been analized and searched in past decades.These rests gave possibility to build an Ancient Bow Reconstruction in 2013.Archeological rests of the Bow. Hungarian archeological rests of bows found in graves and cemeteries are limited to bowplates carved from antlers. These plates have had been sticked to rigid parts of bow. At the end the plates are named antlerplate. Plates on hilt are named hilt plates. Rigid bowplates give informations on hilts and antlers of bows. These informations are detailing the shape mesure and material of bowhilts and antlers.In case of bows discovered in undisturbed graves, entities of bow rests can be examined. Antler plates are examined concerning their small particularities. Early Middle-Ages Bows(Hungarian Ancestors Bows) have had supplementing side antler or hilt plate. Supplementing antler plates are between 19-29 cms long. Their thickness falls under 1.5 mm.Their function have not been to make antler or bow rigid. Antler plates can be divided to head plates and plates without heads. Mixed archeological rests of both types can be discovered.Bows of Hungarian Conquestors have had been painted.The color of antlers and hilts have been very prominent. Concerning archeological rests of bows, sources of main geographical places are places in Caucasus. THese are Gogops, Moschajeva Balka, Podorvannaja Balka with their rests coming from 9th and 11th centuries. THese rests were discovered in 1974 and 1978. Rests not damaged coming from Inner Parts of Asia from 8th-12th centuries(Jargalant, Csonot Úi, Dugui-Cahir) are analized also.These examinations show to researchers processes of developement of bows in which Hungarian Bows can be analized, too.

Steppic bows have had been constructed from four types of materials. These materials have had been wooden material, tendon, horn and sticking woodworking glue. For rigidity of some parts of bow, bone and antler plates have had been used. Frame and antler part of bow have had been constructed from wooden material. Antler of bow have had been rigid. Main and sensible part of the bow is the bowstring.  The string of bow have had been constructed from material which have had quickly decayed. There are no rests of bows from Early Middle-Ages because of that fact. Some archeological rests of bows can be discovered anyway in Central, Inner Parts of Asiatic Lands. Concerning bows there are two main questions pointing out the material used for construction and the handle string. Given archeological rests show that rigid antlers of bowstrings have had been constructed partly from animal sprain. Strings constructed from natural materials are much more thick, between 4-6 millimeters. Examples are archeological rests, steppic bows from Early Middle-Ages. Bows of Hungarian Conquestors have needed protection from wetness. For that protection they created their quivers of bow. Early Hungarian quivers and quiver rests have their ornamentic materials constructed from bones or silver material.

There are two types of quivers. At the turnover of 19th and 20th centuries some 17-20 centimeters long bone plates have had been discovered at Cemetery of Jászdózsa-Kápolnahalom Kenézlő-Farkaszúg I.  At the lower and upper ends these plates have had been drilled with two holes. Fettich Nándor have recognized the function of these plates.They have had been taken to leather material quivers of bows. These quivers have had the goal to protect bows when fighters have not used them. László Gyula recreated early quivers of bow. He replaced ornaments of quivers also. He analized in detail how these quivers have had been placed in graves of cemeteries. He deducted series of quivers from rests of Populations of Turkey and Iran. László Gyula have deducted that plates of bow have two groups:one group of plates  is wider, 4-5 centimeters and another group is tighter,2,5.-3 centimeters. He found these plates at the Cemetery of Tiszaeszlár-Újtelep.Tighter plates have been placed in tombs coming from the lower end(legs) of the tomb.These plates are placed paralelly, 20-30 centimeters from each other. Such an example of placing these plates in that position is the placement in the Cemetery of Karos II. Grave 16. Archeological rests of quivers of bow. Quivers of bow have been recognized and identified in Early 20th century in graves of cemeteries. Lot of historians analized quivers.Eg:László Gyula, Count Zichy István, Cs.Sebestyén Károly.First rebuilt quivers of bows have been shown based on researches of Fábián Gyula and Szőllösy Gábor.

Concerning quiver reconstructions, archeological rests are the iron and bone plates covering the upper or head parts of quivers.These rests are rare and have been discovered in graves of 10th century of Carpathian-Basin. The form and mesure of these rests can be analized in case the rests have had not deplaced in their graves.The historical analize needs practicing horse archery experiences, Middle-Ages descriptions and graphic presentations and ethnographic presentations.

Main point is the construction and material of early quivers. It is well known that early quivers of Carpathian-Basin have had been part of "sand glass"quivers. The name, "sand glass" quiver remains to particular form of these quivers. The material aimed to stock bows  and arrows is named quiver in Hungarian Language. In Hungarian quiver means tegez.Early Hungarians have had used three forms of quivers.  They used the quivers for carrying, the bow quivers and quivers for supporting arrows.  Let us detail the arrow. For the reconstruction of early arrows of conquest, there are three main points. These points are the point of the arrow, the material of the arrow and the length of the arrow. Any other particularities of early Hungarian arrows are hypothetic.Some parallelisms can help historians in their researches. These parallelisms are the Mongol arrows coming from 8th century from Moschajeva Balka and arrows coming from 9th and 10th centuries. Hungarian points of the arrows have had been made from iron of buca and have had been forged by hand. Based on arrow rests of Carpathian Basin, the main difference between arrows of Avars and Hungarians is the construction of head of arrow. The head of arrows of Avars have had been three "winged."Hungarian arrows heads have had been marshy. Different are the heads "D"(queue of swallow) and "F"(point of pricking). The whole length is between 50 and 140 millimeters. The main width(except the form "F") 10-50 millimeters. Thickness is 3-6 millimeters, weight is between 4-30 gramms (weight of rests).Weight of reconstruction is 5-50 gramms, weight of average heads is 12-20 gramms.

The Hungarian points of arrows of 9th and 11th centuries can be divided on six parts:

Type A:short cutting sharpness

Type B:rhombus

Type C:long cutting sharpness

Tyoe D:queue of swallow

Type E:form of fan or chisel

Type F:antitank destroyer or pricking

The early rests of arrow of Cemetery of Kiszombor show that this arrow have had been constructed of the material of Tree Viburnum Lantana, in Hungarian Ostorménfa. There are no exact descriptions concerning the early arrows of Hungarian Conquests. Their thickest part have had been circa 9 to 11 millimeters. At the end part they become thinner. Concerning the length of these arrows, it can be deducted that basing on quiver rests, their length is 82 centimeters. Average lenght was circa 75 centimeters.

Nomad populations have had used the arrows of forms of "lip of oignon."The exterior  part   of 20 to 30 millimeters becomes wider at the end of the arrow. Concerning the plume part of early Middle-Ages arrows, well known are the arrows of three plumes. Length of plumes were 12-15 centimeters.Ancestors have used for construction of plumes of arrows the plumes of waterbirds and the plumes of birds of prey.

Next topic details the source of defence and arms of face to face fightings of Hungarian Conquestors.These arms are sabres and swords. As it was detailed earlier in this Guide, the early sources of 9th and 10th centuries have had emphasized the role of archery. These sources tell that Hungarian Conquestors have had evited face to face fightings.According to military historians and researches, archery have had been the main advantage for Early Hungarian Conquestors. Anyway the face to face fighting resulted victory in early military events. In face to face fightings Early Hungarian fighters have had used main arms, sabres and swords. Descriptions concerning the armories of Hungarian Conquestors, researchers cannot precise types of arms.  The science of archeology and archeologists examine rests of arms and point out changes in military organization and in armory of that Period. Sabres of Early Hungarian fighters and soldiers was 70 to 90 centimeters long.  This length was identic to steppic and Eastern-European forms. Swords have had been used for cutting and also for pricking. Swords of that period were 1 meter long. Western typed, sharpened arms. Both sides of the blade were sharpened. Swords of Early Hungarian Period have had shown traditions of Vikings and Russ. Lances were used lot of times in Early Middle-Ages wars and fightings.Steppic horse fighters have fighted using lances.After bow, lance have been the most frequently used arm. At that time horse fighting soldiers of Franks and Byzantine ground based fighters war tactics and fighting methods have had been based on lance fightings also.Contemporary researchers and archeologists have opened up only very few archeological rests of early lance points from Early Middle-Ages Period. Ancestors have had used their lances as signing their graves.

The wing lance known from Frank Empire in 9th-10th centuries have been different from other lances of the period. This lance had heavy point of 50 centimeters long and have had weighed 50 to 60 dekas.The wing lance denomination comes related to side extensions of this type of lance. These wings have had retained the lance to penetrate deep into injuires. This arm could easily push away the shields of ennemies.In Western Europe of that time this lance was the Lance of Kings. This arm was the main arm in these regions. In lot of Middle-Ages regions lances with laurel leaf formed points have had been in use. These lances have had been very simplified arms. The ethnic relations of these arms are very hardly searchable. The lance production have had been easy. The production of this arm would not have needed professional knowledge. Concerning raw materials, iron or steel were used for lance production.Depending the raw material used for production, lances have been cheaper or more expensive. Hungarian language has lot of words, denominations for arms of pricking.Part of these denominations are known since Early Modern Age. The oldest Hungarian Word is the word   from before Conquesting Age. This word   is kelevéz. Another word is the most important word lándzsa(lance). This word have had come into Hungarian from the Italian word lancetta. Lancetta means the small sized medical knife. The word lándzsa is known since the middle of Middle-Ages Period, 14th century. The Hungarian word gerely(spear) came into our language also in 14th century.This word comes from German language.

Holberds, axes and hatchers. Main arms of face to face Middle-Ages fighting had been swords and sabres. Although particular hitting arms, holberds, axes and hatchers have had important part also in fightings of Middle-Ages.  Middle-Ages axes give us strange feelings of Early Middle-Ages war history. Although these arms have had been also in use.According to historians of this Period, halberd have had been the arm of poor soliders.Halberd creation was cheap, this arm could have been created without special knowledge. Although it is a fact  that basing on archeological rests, halberd rests were found also in riches graves. The historical fact shows the complexity of this arm.In 10th century the halberds and axes have had been constructed according to horse fighting.  The horse fighting versions of these arms were much smaller than halberds and axes used in ground based fightings. They weighed lighter also.Archeologists found a rest concerning wearing of halberds and axes in Early Middle-Ages. This rest have been found Budapest-Csúcshegy in Grave 2. It is an iron hoop. This archeological rest emphasizes the fact that ancient warriors have had hang their arms on their belts.Regarding this group of arms, other variations of Carpathian-Basin can be noted.  For example Avar and Russ variations. Ancient presence of Eastern Russ and, or Slavonic fighters can be noted, too. The 9th and 10th centuries in Middle-Ages were The Age of Arms of Defense. These arms have been different, according to type, material of construction, presence of arm, tactics and other historical facts. Ancient Middle-Ages helmets have been constructed using iron plates. Helmets have had been lined to defend hittings from arms.

Frank helmets in Early Middle-Ages Western Europe had been similar to German Warrior Helmets. Frank helmets have had been equipped with nose protecting supplement. Helmets of Byzantine Horse Fighting Units have had been equipped with protecting supplement. This supplement have been constructed from an iron plate.Not only the helmet have had main importance in Middle-Ages wars and fightings. Also the clothes of soldiers must had protecting role. The basic coat was the arm coat. For the creation of this protecting armour linen have had been used. Linen armour is known from Western and Byzantine descriptions and graphic presentations of 9th and 10th centuries. Middle-Ages Europe denomination given the name "gambeson" and "akiton". Thick constructed textile material have given protection against frquent hittings coming from arm intrusions. Another protecting material have been linen coat. This coat have had several layers.Leather coats have been in use in 9th to 10th centuries. Although descriptions concerning leather coats are very rare. In Early Middle-Ages Frank Heritages leather gloves are in the historical collections. No doubt that resistant leather clothes had given protection in battles.Example is an Early Viking description. This Saga mentions a thick and resistant reiinder jacket, protecting the fighter who have had weared it.

Amongst Early Middle-Ages armours the most well-known was the láncing, the metal armour. Láncing have been widely used in Early Euroean Continent. In Western Europe this armour have had been in use only. Láncing have had been popular in steppic regions but also in Byzantine Empire. Early láncings were long,  reaching the knees and had sleeves reaching the elbow.Nobles láncings have had gold chains. The chains of láncing of Saint Venceslaus of Prague had been created using gold material. Láncing denomination is wire or cable armour. Wires chains have had resisted to cuttings. Although this material have not been resistant against strikes. It is for that reason warriors have had used thick intrusions coming from arms. This way lined arm coat have had protected the person. There are many examples about efficient protection of armours. Armoured soldiers have had stayed in fight after having been hit. Iron armour have been unfit to wear partly because of warm temperatures. Anyway the protection it have given was main. Prince Konrad have died in August 955 when he had taken off his iron armour. He had been hit by a deadly arrow on his throat.

Count Robert from Neustria have been killed in 866 because he have taken off his armour and helmet. Láncing was very flexible wearing. It not blocked movements. Byzantine Empire and Early Eastern Europe were known about the fact that soldiers have had weared sheeted or iron plated coats. Láncing creation was expensive because of the creation of iron chains of materials. In Early Middle-Ages iron armour was the more costly and the most rare of military supplements.its value have been overrated in Frank Empire concerning swords, sabres and the best of their armories.The price of early noble studs, 20 solidus, was approximately the same as a complet armour material price. Iron armours have had been registered as high prized values. These armoures have been given in  heredity in monasteries. Treasuries of monasteries have taken the armours as donations. Only the riches and noble warriors have had donated their armours into these treasuries. Early iron armour rests are very seldom in Middle-Ages rests. Middle-Ages armies have had been very strong, supported by armoured units. Armoured units staffs were small but very efficiant. 

Remarquable are the descriptions of Middle-Ages chronicles. These chroncles, from any countries, have described armoured warriors. They have had described types of armours also. These chronicles counted mainly the above described láncings, not the leather coats of army coats. Warriors using the less costly leather or armory coats were more frequent. Protecting arms from Early Middle-Ages Hungarian armories are barely known, but there are written sources showing these arms. Sources are helmets(galea) which are translated as leather helmet. The main rest of Early Middle-Ages helmet comes from Pécs. It dates back to the end of 10th century. This rest was found in mass graves of Russ soldiers. Another rest from East Regions which can be Early Hungarian rest is the iron helmet from Manvelovka. There can be a rest found in Danube which can be dated into the 9th-10th century. It is a half-round circled helmet, a Western typed helmet.

Concerning early shields, a source writes about Chifeftain Árpád who have had been raised on shield. Chieftain Súr captured in War of Augsburg have had a shield ornamented by silver cross.Because of missing rests there are several possibilities about the armours of early Hungarian Ancestors. It can be deducted that our Ancestors have had not wear iron armour. Another deduction that they wear these iron armours but because of their high values they have hd not taken these armours into their graves.Some have deducted that our Ancestors have had banned to attach their armours into the graves. Some searchers think there are no armours in graves because soldiers have leased their armours from Chieftains.Early Middle-Ages treasuries have had taken back armours. Another supposition is that because of that fact there are no armour rests in Early Middle-Ages graves.   The treasury solution was the example in case of Army of Byzantine Empire. This example have had followed the Late Roman Empire. In Early Hunary treasuries have had not taken back armours. In Hungary armours and arms have been gifts for warrior and other merits. These gifts could not have been taken back any more.

Hungarian Early Middle-Ages coats have not been iron created. These rests were textile or leather coats, so the archeological rests have been destroyed throughout centuries. Leather or textile coats have had shown similarity to other clothes weared. Early Middle-Ages sources describe the leather clothes weared by horse archers of that time. One of these sources is Königsaal-Chronicle. They have had also wear several leather jerkins in wars.(Villain-Chronicle). Leather jackets have had given the satisfying protection because of the laminated arrangement.

Next topic will talk  about the Age of Military Campaigns. Before Conquest of Hungary Hungarian Units could have weighed the complexity of European State Arrangements.  Byzantine Empire have had been based on the ancient tradition of Roman Empire. Hungarian Units had met them at the lower Danube and in the Region of Krim.

The Emperors and Commanders of Dynasty of Macedonia from 867 until 1056 conquested their lost territories in wars. Territories in questions mean the Territories from the Balkans to South of Italy.They have succeeded in these military conquests.Although Hungarian Historical Sources do not remain them because of these successes. These two Emperors are Leo The Wise and Constantin The Seventh(Purple Born Constantin). The continous conflicts between the Byzantine Empire and Empire of Bulgaria have had supported Hungarian Conquestors.The Hungarian Military Forces have become allies of Bulgarian Empire until 970 when they lost one of the battles. This defeat happened in Arcadiapolis. Today name is Luleburgaz in Turkey. Allies defeated were allies of Kijev, Bulgars and Petscheneg. Byzantine Army have had preserved traditions of Roman Empire. These traditions were logistic, heavy horse army, and light horse army traditions.All these traditioons were preserved in ground base army units also. Byzantine Elite  Army garrisoned in barracks was unique in these historical perods. Byzantine Army introduced the use of red firework. The Byzantine Army   used red firework in water fightings and ground fightings. In Western Europe Empire of Carolings was terminated. The Country of Charles The Great(Nagy Károly) have had been divided in 843. This division had taken place in Verdun. At that time Hungarian Ancestors are close to Eastern-Frank Kingdom. This Kingdom uses Early Hungarians as supporting their military actions.The Last Roman Emperor was Arnulf of Carinthia. The Emperor have had been faced with threats and ennemis coming from Moravia, Hungary and from Vikings.After the death of Last Frank-Emperor defeated by Hungarian Ancestors in 911, the Duchies defended by Karolings became independant. Some of these Independant Duchies were the Duchy of Saxon, Duchy of Frank and Duchy of Bavaria.

Lotharingia conquested by Henrik The First with the Capital of Aachen also became an Independent Duchy. The son of Henrik The First, Otto have had winded up total independencies. At the end of years 940 the Emperor of Five Duchies have had been Otto and members of his family. Bruno, one of Brothers of Otto have been Bishop of Cologne.He have conquested Lotharingia. Brother Henrik have had conquested Bavaria.  The son of Henrik The First, Otto have had winded up total independencies. At the end of years 940 the Emperor of five Duchies was Otto and members of his family.Bruno one of brothers of Otto  have had been Bishop of Cologne. He conquested Lotharingia. Brother Henrik had conquested Bavaria. Consequently the goals of Empire and the conquest of Italy have meant the end of Hungarian cruisades. Sign of this process have been Crowning of Emperor Otto in Pavia in 951. Duchies of that time have been divided on countships.These countships have given bases of main territorial conflicts.The conflicts were also useful for external ennemies, like Hungarians amongst others. Eastern bordered countships have had potentials of conquest.Concerning Italy the Italian Empire has had been divided by Western Empires and Eastern Roman Empire. Also Arabic interests have intervened into Italian affairs. North Longobard Kingdom have been Italian Kingdom. The borders of South of that Kingdom have extended until Rome. Venise have had never been part of Italian Kingdom. Regions of Alps have been attached to Countships of South-Germany in 10th century. Countships of Toscana and Spoleto were also created as military targets. Italy suffered at that period because of confused political background. This Era favorised not the military resistance. Particular Biography of that Period is The Biography of Berangar The First, Count of Friul. His adventoruous life finished by his murdering.Main centers of military resistance have had been bishopries. Ancient Hungarian Military Units have had besieged some towns, Vercelli, Bergamo, Pavia without success. These Italian towns had been church centers and frequent targets of Hungarian besiegeries.

Attacks of Saraceniens have caused troubles in South-Italy and in North part of Italian Empire also. Italy was besieged in 827. Saracenien Armies besieged Italy and destroyed the Empire bordering the sea near to Piemont. Date of destroy of Rome was 840. In 931 these armies have destroyed Pavia, too. Parallel attacks came in same time in these regions from Hungarian units.Hungarians have had attacked mainly Longobard Territories and Calabria. At that time French Territories have been divided because of political reasons. Main countries having power were County of Normandy, County of Britanny, Counties of Acquitanny and Gasconny. Other Main Counties were Narbonne centered County of Gothia, Anjou-Maine, Flandry and Champagne. Kingdom of Burgundy have had been created by division. Principality of Burgundy have resided under French power. County of Burgundy was attached to German Empire.

Main adversaires of these territories have been Kings of Franks, having Territories of Ile-de-France. Capetings of Neustria have appeared in 9th century.  Son of Robert The Strong Odo organized the defense of Paris in 885. Thus he became King. His adversaires were Normands. Robert Family powered during hundred years.

Hugo The Great strenghtened his power in 10th century. Results of reignance of Dynasty of Capetings came in 912. These results have come as consequence of Norman Alliance at North-Western Part of French Kingdom. This Alliance have had given stability to this region at that time. Power of kings have been stabilized also. Iberic Half-Island have been divided since 711 when King Rodrigo was defeated. When Hugo The Great died, Gothic power have been finished in this region.Arabs were not strong enough  to conquer Iberic-Island.Two civilisations faced each other here. When Alfonso The First(739-757) had reigned, two civilisations have got power and force. The border line between these two cultures extended from Porto until Osma through the Valley of Duero.When Alfonso reigned he established close relationships wih King Charles The Great. This Period have had been marqued by strong  military presence of Frank Army of the South Territories near to Pyreneen Mountains. At the end of 8th century Wilfried(873-898) Count of Barcelona established Catalan Empire. Between Catalonia and Asturia was formed the two Territories of Navarra and Asturia.

Basques living in mountains have had resisted to military conquests. Al-Andalusz, Andalusia have been North-African Territory. It was empowered by Governor of Kalif of Damascus.Arab discords have had given possibility to independence. Since 756 have had existed The Emirat of Umajjad which have had been powered by members of family emigrated from Syria.Capital was Córdoba.The crisis of Al-Andalusz and Marocan Sea bordered territories intervened around 900. Resolution came from excellent General Abdál-Al-Rahmán The Third(912-961).  Kalifats competing with each other have given territory to diplomacy of Christian States at Half-Island of Iberia. At this historical period conquesting Hungarian Armies traversed Pyreneen Mountains. In 942 they reached South of France traversing Lombardia.So they devastated Hispan Territories powered by Arabs.

Middle-Ages Europe have been very divided and colourful. Lot of conquerors coud profit these divisions and diversities of the early continent. Disavantages were diversity of equipement of different armies, the difference of military cultural basis, diversity of Middle-Ages arms. Main disadvantage for the newly arrived conquerors was the fact of serious military experience of indigenes coming from wars against Arab armies and Normann armies.

Ungri is the earliest Western-European Source of Midldle-Ages Hungarian Conquests. Past years Annual of Saint-Bertain(Annales Bertiniani) have attired the attention of Hungarian scientists.Maybe Annales Bertiniani is a suffix, or have some relations with a Western-Slavonic Unity, have been living near to border of Denmark. Proof of deduction of arrival of Hungarian Unities to Carpathian-Basin comes maybe from Annales Bertiniani. Another Annual, Annual of Fulda recites Conquest of Hungarians traversing Danube.Story is based on Regino recits. Hungarians have had conquested in 894. Annales Fulda recites Hungarian attacks against Bulgars in 895. It details arrival and conquests of Year 896 bainsg on recits of Bishop Lázár(Lasarus). Bishop Lázár was Ambassador of Emperor Byzantine. Concerning Hungarians, the source having main interest is Antapodosis, reciting events happened between 893and 962.

Antapodosis is a very important historical source. This book is The SOurce of Battle of Brenta and Conquest of Pannonia(899-900). Antapodosis is the main source also of Battle of Merseburg(933),about which it gives recits in details.It recits  Italian Conquests in 898 and gives rememberence to "hui hui"epic battle cries. Let us point out the early work of Abbey Corvey Widukind who have written the Book History of Saxons. He wrote this work between years 967-973 and he emphasized conquesting Hungarians. He have presented Battle of Merseburg and verbal recits(955) and he have written on Battle of Lerch pointing out details.

Gebhard from Church of Augsburg have written his work Life COuncil of Saint-Ulrich after 955 His writings were born between 982 and 993. Important are the descriptions on Bishop defending the city against conquesting Hungarians. .These informations support Life Councils of Saint Wiborada and the descriptions of Widukind on Battle of Field of Lerch.

One of the four most important Chronicles is the Regino Chronicle describing world-history. The most part concerning Regino Chronicle have been imported from Justinianus and Paulus Diaconus Chronicles. Main part is the Part of 889 which year Charles The Fat Third(Harmadik Kövér Károly) died. This is an important part of this Chronicle, related to Early Hungarians. Regino has written his Chronicle in Trier where ha became Abbey of Monastery of Martin(Márton Monostor).His Chronicles have had been written in this Monastery amongst others the Regino World Chronicle in 908. Regino wrote as a whole work. That is why it is also litterature. Parts concerning Early Hungarians have been edited between 900 and 906. Historical importance of Regino is high.  Partly because other chronicers of that period like Anonymus from Hungary based on it as source work. Regino Chronicles have had been edited in Early Middle-Ages Hungary.  

History of Arms of Ancestors and Early Hungary

Sources of LOw Countries cite Aventinus whose name was Johannes Turmair(1477-1534). He have had visited more than hundred places in South-Germany for his continous researches.

World remember him as history writer of Bavaria.  He have had written this book as the Writer of Court of Prince of Bavaria.  The title of this work is Two Books of Bavarian Year- Books(Annarium Boiorum libri septen).The story recites the Creation of World until the Year 1400. 

Some of Aventinus sources have remained until nowdays. Some of others amongst his sources have had been lost.They were found only in 19th century. Thanks to Aventinus,  recits of destroyed German Monasteries thanks to Hungarian Units  are known.  

The Battle of Bratislava of 907 have had been documented also by Johannes Turmair, Aventinus. He have recited as source work The Latin Chronicles of Hungary also. These Chronicles have had been treaching on some point.

Interest of professionals of historical scientists focus on Chronicles from before Year 1000. Let us point out historical distance of the sources of events and reality based historical facts. Texts of remained chronicles have nothing in common with real facts of Conquest of Hungary.

Authors of these chronicles have had known the importance of Conquest of Hungary. Anyway they have been obliged to base on Bible, on Epic Songs, and on Early Western Chronicles.

The Chronicle of Gesta from Anonymus is always interesting and in focus for Hungarian Scientists. It was interpreted by modern science on several points. The newest interpretation takes the date of writing to the Year of 1220. Maybe there is some relationship of Gesta with Dominican Missions and Paulus, too. 

Thanks to ancient chronicles several legends remained. Such a one is, The Legend of Turul. Turul remains an important symbol in contemporary Hungarian political symbolism. The name, the word "Turul" comes from Kézai Simon.

Legends of adventures and adventruous life of Hungarian Ancestors is real and no doubt on it. Based on a chronicle coming from the Period of King Matthias(Mátyás Király, Hunyadi Mátyás) heroic songs have remained concerning Hungarian Ancestors even in 15th century. Legend coming from before the years 1200 from the Era of Attila remains. The book containing this Legend have perished. It have been rebuilt using Latin language litterature. Blood sealed compact between Hungarian Chieftains remains similar.Scientists of Ethnography seem to think this a heritance from our Ancestors.  

Concerning Hungarian adventures and battles the most difficult part of contemporary historical science is to judge events. In regard of judgement, it is difficult to weigh them as political and diplomatic facts.Today it is a fact that the preparation of battles have had been depending on diplomacy. Anyway this theory comes from Bogyay Tamás and Vajai Szabolcs.When Vajai and Bogyay established their theory it remained not accepted. Bogyay and Vajai based their theory against the facts of devastating Hungarina Conquests. Proof of Western intrusion leaves incertainities because of Pagan Alliance.

Help of Hungarian Units in battles of Italy and Byzantine Empire can be proved. It is not clear that Hungarian Ancestors have begun their fights on their own or on call of Foreign Empires. Scientists are divided in regard of that problem.  Some of them think that our Ancestors have had seeking their new country. Some of the scientists think that stressful life of Nomadic Society could have been sublimated.

Hungarian Ancestors have shown diplomatic openness. Concerning remote countries they have got visits of ambassadors calling to battles.

These battles have raised money for these Hungarian Units. This money, big amount of coins came as tax or as plunder.

There are datas of tax paying from Bavaria, Saxons, Tcheque, Byzantine Territories. Other datas coming from ancient coins rests found in graves. Counting all these coins only 40 of them can be related to these ancient battles. Greatest part have had been melted. First part of 10th century was  named "The Silver Age"according to historian Róna István. 15 tonnes of silver coins arrived to Carpathian- Basin.  That is the source of datas. In reality lot more have had arrived. Taxes and money have given the found of Nomadic Society and Hungarian Units.Other parts of incomes have meant preparation of battles and conquests. Hungarian Units have had obligation to pay for finding ways of advancing in battles. Their traverses have had happened through Bavaria, and North of Italy.These traverses finished as consequence of strike of Otto THe First in the beginning of years 950.  

Conquests and adventures of our Ancestors suppose the success of Hungarian Units and Nomad Society. In a society stabilized,direction of foreign affairs and military affairs is vital.Early suppositions predicted organization between Hungarian Units.

Rests of Upper-Tisza together with Western rests of coins have had refuted the theory of political and military organization between Ancient Units of Hungarians .

Contemporary historians knowledge is limited to very few Ancient Hungarian Chieftains. Some of the names are Tarhos, Taksony, Bulcsu. They have actively participated in Hungarian conquests.

Curious fact was facing of Hungarian Units amongst each other in 906. Anyway they have always agreed to foreign agreements.

According to German sources, in 954-955 exclusive political agreements have had formed but sources evoque the deny of these compacts. Hungarian Chieftains established political contacts.They also established agreements with Prince of Lotharingia, Bishop of Salzburg, King of Germany in 955. These meetings have not been personal facings.

Hungarians have got a call to battle in the beginning of Year 954. Early sources cite the conspiracy against King Otto as reason. This conspiracy have began in Eastern of 953 when relatives of Otto, Konrad The Red, Swabian Prince, Liudolf, Prince of Lotharingia, tried to capture him without success. Compte of Regensburg Arnulf have had revolted. He captured Regensburg and allied with Liudolf. Arnulf died in July 23rd of 954. Revoltants have had submitted. Revoltants have payed huge amount to Hungarians to avert devastation of Bavaria.Liudolf himself have told to corrupt Hungarians for averting their intrusion against himself and his subjects. Hungarians have meant danger to foreign and German powers. Neither of German and foreign powers wanted Hungarian intrusion.

In the beginning of 954 Hungarians arrived and joined events in Netherlands. They have had got their pay in Worms in 19th of March.Contradictions can be highlighted when pointing out the reconstruction of ancient route of Worms-Cambral. (19th of March-6th of April).

As contemporary science remembers there are 18 monasteries and churches devasted by Ancient Hungarian Units. Rememberance recitates them only later on.The devastation of monasteries between Maastricht and Cambral on the route of 230 kilometers have had happened in very short time. Hungarians had 10 days for that act. They have gone back home traversing Burgundia and Italy.

They have had not planned to intrude to the battles of South-Germany. That is why they have sent smaller units.Anyway they have sent Anyway they sent a Unit to Byzantine Empire also.The presence of Bulcsu highlights the importance of these adventurous battles.

Concerning Hungarian Conquests and battles there are detailed chronicles. Chronicles detail defeaits of Battles of Merseburg in 933 and Augsburg in 955.Outstanding have been Battle of Brenta as part of Battle of Italy in 899-900.Battle of Brenta can be recognized as one of the biggest success of Early Middle-Ages Hungarian Armies. Another outstanding Battle and its picturesque recitation have been Battle of Sankt-Gallen.

Historians debate on facts of Battle of Bratislava in 907. These debates point out derivative parts of Early Humanist Chronicles or which parts are reconstructed by Aventinus.

Most detailed warrior event of Ancient Hungarian Conquests and Battles is The Battle of Italy from 898-899..The Battle of Italy have been part of War of Bulgaria in 895 and the War of Atkadiapolis in 970. The War of Bulgaria have been the beginning and the War of Atkadiapolis have been the ending part of these battles.

These battles were preceeding by diplomatic antecedants.German political leaders have had sent Hungarian Units towards Italian Empire.

Battles begun in 898 when Hungarian Armies departed to Italy. Italian cities were densely populated and lot of fortresses and castles have defended these Italian cities.

Arriving to Brenta Hungarians have had stopped their advancing. They sent their smaller horse equipped  units to clear up the region.

The incoming reports strenghtened their notions concerning this region. Hungarian Units have had needed stronger forces, but the region have been preferred to adventures.High mountains at North, the Sea in South, bordering the territories. Rivers divided this territory.Parts lay bordering the region. At the time of their battles and adventures smaller regions could have been controled by Hungarian Army Units.Their ennemies have fought down forces of nature. Sensible point of Hungarian Armies have been their military camp. They have built this camp at the other side of that river. They have taken their rests. THe attack of bows have found Italians unprepared. After this victory Hungarians have had devastated Berengár Country and next Year they have gone home with the rich prey. 

At the 10th century advancing in Carpathian-Basin of fHungarians and the winding-up of Eastern -Frank suppremacy in Pannon Territories have projected the possibility of war between ancient allies of Bavaria and Hungary.  Bavarian attack have started in June of 907. Near to Bratislava Hungarian Armies have destroyed the Armies of Louis The Child King of Germany. Importance of this battle is shown by dead nobles who have had fighted  in this War. Among dead nobles let us cite Compte Lieutpold, Bishop of Salzburg, or Bishops of Freising and  Brixen. 

Concerning Hungarian adventures and conquests, only brief recitations remain us from history. What happened in Bratislava in the Battle of 907  we do not know.Only the books of necrology of South and Monasteries of that region. In theYear Book of Salzburg the place of this battle is written.(Eg:Brezauluspurc). THat is why that most of historians put the place of that battle near to Bratislava(Pozsony),name of that city is recited first time in the 11the century.

According to a remaining source, an ancient certificate,  the Army of Kingdom of Germany have had departed in the day of 17th of June of 907 from Ennsburg.They have divided themselves.  One of teams had followed the Ancient Route of Limes.THis is the South Bord of Danube. At that time the other unit followed Northern BOrd of  Danube. The rest of units and the supply have had arrived in boats. As it is known from early history, the First Unit of Bavaria have approached the entrance of Forest of Vienna in jUne of 24. They reached the place of Battle of Bratislava in 3rd of July. 

Hungarians have had been in easier situation because of the different length of the warrior route of Bavarian Army Units have caused difficulties to them.Hungarians have known the region perfectly.

The Battle of Bratislava have had been of main importance because of the future of historical development of this region of Central-Europe. The Conquest of Hungary have had mainly depended of the result of Battle of Bratislava.The end of the Battle of Bratislava resulted the final settling of HUngarians in their territories. It have resulted the controle of Territories between rivers Enna and Fischa. 

The Nine Years of Armistice of 924 entered with Henrik The First King of Germany and the Entrance with Arnulf, Compte of Bavaria resulted the conquests of Hungarians in Territories of Belgium and Luxemburg. 

The first part of battles is related to days of Saint- Gal which he have spent in this Monastery in Switzerland. Date was the 8th of May 926. Between times the Army have had traversed the Champagnes and the Ardens.Damages caused are barely mentioned. Backroute they have devastated Verdun and around. Chronicles have not detailed these damages. Year of 926 have had been rich in events.Rudolph of Burgundia have been expelled.His father-in-law Burckhard The Second, Prince Swabian was killed in the 29th of April in North-Italy.Hugo of Provence was crowned in jUly 926.Reignings have had seeked Hungarian help. The help seeking can be proved by the historical fact that next year in 927 Hungarian Units have had been called to invade Italy. 

It was Ekkerhard THe Fourth who have had chronicled the stay of Hungarian Army in Sankt- Gallen.The Chronicle written  on this topic, is The Continous Chronicle written before 1057.Ekkerhard have had written Latin Poems  also. This Chrionicle have recited events between 884 and 972. 

Ekkerhard has been student of Notker der  Deutsche. Then he has become teacher in Mainz at School of the Cathedral of Mainz. Later on he has continued  teaching at the Monastery of Sankt-Gal. 

Chronicle of Ekkerhard has rare and not known details concerning Ancient Hungarians and thieir warriror tactics. Exemples are grouping in small groups, burning their deads.

Stories written by Ekkerhard are funny and optimistic. . Any other interesting facts concerning our Ancestors are the following. Signs of horn for reunion, they traversed main rivers on thier boats.

This is the Year of 926 when Chronicle of Saint Wiborada have been also written. This book was re-written also by Ekkerhard. Main story is the killing of Virgin Wiborada  and her meeting with Hungarian Ancestors.

Adventures of Spain have had become known after finding the Fifth Book of Al-Muqtabis written by Ibn Hajján who lived and worked at the 11th century. In this Chronicle there are pages concerning Hungarian Ancestors. This Chronicle have had been found in 1969.  

In Spain Hungarians have had come guided. They have come from the Region of Catalonia. They have traversed until Lerida. 

In Spain the well known fact concerning Hungarians have been the capturing of Emperor of Barbastro City and the liberation after paying ransom for him.Hungarian Ancestors have had besieged Lerida for a whole week. They have retired because of their serious problems of supply. 

During these events Hungarians have had been captured by Arabs.They were recruited into the Calif Bodyguard. 

When retiring Hungarians had been defeated in Catalonia. The text of Al-Muqtabis cites the Seven Chieftains also. Problem is the incorrect description onf Cheiftains. 

The Adventures of Hungarians in Byzantine Empire in Year 934 are also sourced, but less then the Western adventures of these ancestors.According to these chrincles. they have reached Constantinople several times.  Indigents payed their taxes to them also in form of gifts. 

The Chronicle of Botond is the Early Middle-Ages Source of and adventure of our Ancestors in Constantinople.Lot of historians relate these events to the Year of 958 when Purple Borned Constantinos have had abolished tax paying. According to the legend Botond have won over the Byzantine soldier. All these cruisades have had finished devastating Greece.

Constantinople has  had his Golden Gate in Early Middle-Ages. Through this Golden Gate-today it is related to Jedikula-have entered the  Generals whose armies won.The breaking of the Gate meant the sacral beginning of war. THe breaking of Gate have meant also the shame of devastated town. Historical exemple is the breaking of Gate of Kijev of Boleslo The Brave in 1018. 

In Early Middle-Ages the orientation of armies have had been very difficult. It have been caused more problems when reaching and fighting unknown territorieies. Particular historical fact of Early Middle-Ages is the location of habitants of geographical regions. Most people  have had spent their whole life in the same region of birht and living.Except mercenaires and commercants.

Anyway for adventures and wars the detailed knwoledge of fwar territories have been compulsory.Routes of wars and adventures,secure distances for camp, location of passes, etc. Hungarian Ancestors have had traversed really long ways. THe orientation of Hungarian Units have been excellent. They have found their targets.

Anceint written sources recite guides, detents, espions, and explorators.Western expeditions have happened for the calling of kings of emperors of allied countries, they have sent the guides to Hungarian Units.

THese guides mean kalauz in Hungarian language. Kalauz is a word coming from Turkish.THe guide activities at that historical period are known from Byzantine and from Turkish or Tartar sources. It is evident that guides were indigents knowing the given region very well. They have had changed their sides or they were payed extra well.Well payed guides have turned the sort of armies and battles, but the whole battle and sort have had risks also. In case of betraying their allies could have kill them. In case of detention their ennemies have had killed them. In 937 a guide of Slavonia trapped his Hungarian allies during the Saxon expedition. In 934 Hungariians have had whipped their Italian guide to death because he guided them to a region without water.  Consequence uwas the almost death because of thirst of Hungarians.King Hugo  has sent to Hungarians the Italian guide to lead the Hungarian Units in Expedition of Spain.In case when régiónál guides have had not been at disposition veteran soldiers guided military units. Exemple is the case of Tartarians.Veteran warriors  have had enough experience to lead these army units to success.

Spies in service of Hungarian Armies explored the regions and routes of army units in advnace. Best explorators have had been commercants. Byzantine Chronicles of 10th century have had proposed commercants to explorations.Hungarians interrogated their prisoners. An exemple is the case of Adventures of Sankt Gallen in 926. Here they have interrrogated a German Clerical earlier detented. THey have spokken Hungarian.

Grave of a Hungarian Warrior was found in 1885 at Aprés-les-Corps in South Eastern France. THis rest have had related to Adventures and Explorations of 10th century.Researches of Hungarian science of archeology begun examining remains of anceint adventures. Description of these remains have been an important task also.

Jankovich Miklós emphasizes in his research that Valiant Bene, Prince Solt and Berengar The First were in Italy. Proves are for this presence the coins found in graves, and rests of arms, sabres and tops of arrows. 

There are materials found  in territorial  couches of 10th chentury. These materials are remaining g Hungarian ones. Another rests are ancient fortresses  at that territitories. Dead graves prove warrior facts and adventures. In this case death have had come from arms of light weight horse armed Hungarian soldiers.Important are the ancient hidden treaasures  from Hungarian warriors and the ancient rests of battles. Coin rests found are explanatory as a fact of successes of wars and battles. 

The graves of archeological rests of warriors killed in 10th century.explain the Hungarian presence outside Carpathian -Basin. THese grave rests are rare.Reason is that the funeral have happened in far territories. es.These pagan graves have had been isolated from christian tomnbs in villages. Main cause was to avoid vengence of survivals of Hungarian attacks. These rests of tombs have had been present in France,in region of Schlacht in Eastern-Alps adn in Gnandendorf in Austria.Grave of Gnandendorf showed the rests of a young warrior.THis grave have been richly annexed and scientific examinations have attired the attention of "HUngarian question." The rest of Gnandenndorf explains political interest in Danube-Valley of Ancient Hungarians of 10th century. They have had established graves and temporary accomodation in the region.

Let us know some rests of tombs found in Basin of Vienna in modern times.Sporadic remains and rests have been found around the River of Enss. 

Remains of deterioration are the castles of 10th century. These are the castles of Eastern and Central European Regions.There are also the fortresses having the objects remaining to Hungariana adventures.  An example is the Castle of Sand,around Thaya.This is the best archeological place. Attacks are proved with arrow bottoms found in ramparts and other archeological remains.

Probably Hungarian attacks of 10th century have had caused the deterioration of Anceint Fortress of Iatrus,placed in Bulgaria. Iatrus have had containrd remains related to Anceint Hungarians. The opening up of archeological rests happens continuosly. Examples are stirrup at Todenman in Low-Saxon Country or rremains of a sabre at Eislingen.SOme arrow rests remain also to Hungarian attacks at Zalavár or Utzenhofen in Bavaria.

Researchers doubt concerning Hungarian origin of these arrow remains from 10th century. The arrows in question have had been in use before Ancient Hungarians have had originated. Anyway there are real remains related to Hungarian adventures and conquests.

Ancient bows and arrows were the sources of success of Hungarian Ancestors conquests.Differeent sources are the origins of  that success. Chronicles of Leo The Wise, Chrionickles of Ibbn Hajan etc.Archeological rests show several remaining places where ennemis have had died caused by Hungarian arrow attacks.The most well known rest is the Village of Bietigheim between the rivers of Rhone and Black-Forest.

Dead burries sources are the double graves of devastation of Rome coming from 10th century.They are victims of Anceinet Hungarians. One of the ancient visctims have had died because of an arrow.Another one have been killed using sabre. 

There are also ancient tombs in Moravia where people died killed by Hungariana arrows.THese places are Bankovice, Breclav-Pohensko, Tesov.

Sabre killed a man whose dead body have been found at Gars-Thunau Fortress. These are other deads who have had been killed by Hungarian sabres.

At the left side of Danube there is an ancient grave with a body who have been n blessed on the neck and shoulder by a Hungarian arrow. A  similar case can be found in Utzenhofen, in Chapel of Saint Vitus Grave. There are several mass graves at these archeological places. Consequently there have been lot of deads killed by Ancient HUngarians.

There are other Early Middle-Ages remains showing Hungarian Ancestors warlike. One of these ancent remains is the Gravestone in Church of Basel and within the Chapel of Sainkt- Gal.Ancient writings at the bottom of the Grave tell that Bishop Rudoph have had been burned by Pagans.

Famous Chroniker of 11th century Hermann of Reichenau have chronicled the real facts. These are thet Bishop have been the victim of Hungarian devastations in summer of the Xear 917.

Lost Hungarian materials have had been located from adventures of 955.There are mainly sporadic reemains.An example is Treasure of Ilanz. This Treasure is owned and exhibited at British Museum  in modern times.Coins belonging to that Treasure are coming from the Period of Berengar The First. Ancient owners have left them at the times of Hungarian Attacks of 917. Some denarius have been hidden at the same period. Coins were discovered in 1854. The coins are from the Period of Louis The Child.

Many cases prove the unsuccessful hide of treasures. Hungarians have had discovered these treausures many times. Lot of belongings obtaining to nobles and chapelles have been owned during the ransom of detented soldiers.

The rests of Carpathian-Basin of 10th century contain coins from Byzantine Empire and coins from Western Europe.These coins belongings originated from tribute, ransom or military service.They have been used also for payment. Other uses were as objects of ornaments. They become raw materials of ornamentic objects

Main booty of Middle-Ages adventures  have had been men captured. These men could be ransomed by their relatives or emperors, kings or they have been sold in slave market.Human commerce happened against high prices.Hungarians have had actively participated in slave commerce. 

Muslim chhronikers have emphasized the participation  of HUngarians in slave commerce.They based on chronicles of Djaháni.Al Masoudi have had written that Hungarians coming to Constantinople have sold out their children and women against clothes of textiles and clothes made of silk and brocade.

These belongings transformed during centuries. Organic materials  perished.Iron material rests in ancient Early Middle-Ages graves are the chronicles of ancient handsome Hungarian Ancestors and their brocade clothes, their arms ornamented with silver and pearl.

SOme arms and harnesses show that prey have contained arms coming from foreigners also.Proves are the western sword rests and the rest found in Grave 1 in Kungágota.Soldiers have had used these arms kept in fightings.Other prey was the woman stirrup.THese objects have not been used by our Ancestors.They have donated these stirrups as gift objects.     




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